Born at Dalsland (Sweden), 1871. Built first instrument 1884, when following the trade of carpenter and cabinet-maker. Seriously studied constructional art 1890, All specimens up to the year 1920 more or less in the nature of experiments of different original designs. Settled at Goteborg 1920.
Finally adopted Stradivarian and Guarnerian modelling for violins and ’cellos. Produced about ten instruments annually. Golden-red and reddish-brown shades of oil varnish imported from Italy and other countries. Splendid designs with no modification (except a tendency towards medium-arching) from the clearly-traced and “tried” path of his prototypes. Workmanship dictated by the forces of refinement. Scrolls and sound-holes contribute dignified gracefulness to the whole contour. Corners approached ingeniously. Purfling aptly harmonises with the slightly pronounced edges.
Clear and warm tonal quality almost of Italian persuasiveness. Patronised by cultured amateurs in Prussia and France. Gold medallist at Stockholm Exhibition, 1925. Many quartet players and those of the symphony orchestra use his instruments.
Also built a few replicas of well-known Strads.
Franz Waldemar Dahlén
Götebor Anno 19. .
Frans W. Dahlén
Landsvâgsgat s.

Born at Gemenos (Mouth of the Rhône), 1902. Went to Italy in early years.
Violins, ’cellos and guitars - good workmanship without distinctive features - varnish of excellent texture.
Giustino Dal Canto
in Castelfranco di Sotto (Pisa), 1949

see COSTA.

Worked at Mantua (Italy), 1723-1775. Probably the father of the one below, unless the instruments (not especially conspicuous for fine workmanship) are spuriously dated, and may be the early productions of the son.
Giuseppe dall’Aglio
fecit Mantue. 1723

Worked at Mantua, 1795-1840.
General build resembles that of a Camilli or a Peter Guarnerius, but occasionally (usually dated round about 1803 and 1817) there are specimens of flatter arching. Honestly sincere workmanship, but not particularly distinctive. Somewhat straight sound-holes. Scroll frequently rather clumsy and heavy looking. Body length, 35.8 cm. Had a particular fancy for nearly always using wide-grain spruce for breast, and a partiality for one-piece backs usually of broadish figure, but sometimes rather plain. Various shades of varnish - dark red, golden brownish red, light brown, and a bright yellow not too sensationally startling to offend the eye. Evenly strong and penetratingly silky tonal quality which must get richer as the years pass.
Specimens varnished golden brownish red are supposed to be his best. Modelling approaches nearer to the Stradivarian. Table wood also of finer grain.
’Cellos somewhat in the style of a Peter Guarnerius. Splendid double basses of grand pattern - thick red varnish.
Joseph Dall’Aglio
fecit in Mantuae
Anno 1814
(decorative border)
Joseph Dalaglio
fecit in Mantuae
Anno 1824
Some earlier dated labels written. Today’s prices £300 to £450.

Worked at Vienna, 1768-1809.
It is pleasant to record the fact that he was one of those Viennese makers who increased his reputation by a liberality of design, and did his share toward the development of national habits in violin-making. Though many of us have a preference for the Italian school, we cannot escape being rather impressed with these freely designed (though having certain characteristics of Thir and Stainer) instruments. ‘Advanced Guard’ of the workmanship carries a ‘banner’ to which any prejudice (which might have been previously entertained) must capitulate.
Model of narrow dimensions with rather high and full arching, but nothing forced or unnatural - no sudden bulging as we sometimes see in specimens of the Stainer school. Sound-holes, typically Stainerish, have a perfect swing, which is extremely pretty. Purfling not always neatly done, particularly in the corners. Scrolls (some having lionheads) always of pear-tree wood - carved with acceptable artfulness. Varnish usually a dark brown without much fire - also used an old-looking one of yellow tint - the latter considered to be his best, instruments having reached prices almost double of the first-named. Sometimes back and ribs varnished slightly darker than the top. Splendid wood accoustically, top usually of strong grain, but not always pretty kmaterial for back. No illiberality of sweetness in the tone, and generally good enough and strong enough to meet the requirements of those soloists not in financial position of being able to purchase a Cremonese specimen. Altogether these instruments can manfully stand up to criticism that some experts indulge in.
Sometimes branded on back.
Sebastian Dalinger
Lauten und Geigenmacher
in Wien. 1783.
(thick lettering - German style)
Sebastian Dalinger
Viennae. anno 1806
Sebaitian Dalinger
fecit Viennae. Anno 1774
Sometimes name given as ‘Dallinger’, ‘Dalmiger’ and ‘Tallinger’.
Also produced many ’cellos on which he exercised every bit of skill he possessed. Instruments eagerly sought for because of a somewhat remarkable warm sonority of tone.

Born at Taunton (England), 1849. Worked at Bristol, 1882-1920.
In the making of his violins he did everything entirely with own hands; and to the fact that he was a violinist as well as a maker, must be ascribed much of the splendid tonal results achieved. Aimed at keeping pace with public standard - a standard gradually growing away from the old methods of draughtmanship of several English makers. Out of this, he wrought many masterpieces that rival the work of Frenchmen and brought him on the high road to winning fame on the continent.
Not the slightest lapse from artistry impeded the interpretation of his conception of what he should do in imitating the model of a Strad. Had a preference for this outline and arching, etc., but equally successful with those of Guarnerius, Amati, and Gagliano. His genius magnetised a popular interest to circulate around his productions, because he always bore in mind ‘that the violin-maker is an artist only as far as every line he shapes has the intention of forming beauty and responsiveness of tone’.
Used an orange red varnish mostly, almost old Italian in appearance, and applied it with that discrimination aided by experience which must accompany success. Instruments plentifully wooded with finest material. Adopted none of those abominable processes of chemically or heating the wood and thus close up the portals of a future tonal edifice with a bang. Achieved magnificent results in tone - a tone that might make some of us look to the future and not always the past for our solo instruments.
It is not such a daring expectation to look for some advance in things that go beyond this present horizon. Are we to suppose there will be no Stradivari of the future? No similar inspirations of culture and cleverness that produced the Cremonas? Let him say so who has the sublime egotism to believe it. For our part we think that Darby will reach that Parnassus of fame if his work is not obscured by the prejudiced opinions of connoisseurs against English violins.
George Darby. Cremona House
Bristol. Anno 1902.
(bold lettering)
With G.D. double circled; autographed; and dated Jan. 1902. Darbey on some labels. Also made superb bows - perfectly balanced affairs that make virtuosi revel in their displays of fanciful bowing. Sarasate and Wilhelmj used them.

Born at Brussels, 1862. Son of Joseph. Pupil of Gaillard at Mirecourt, and Nicolas (ainé). Established in Brussels, 1886. Worked alone until 1894, then started the firm ‘Darche Frères’ (brother a piano-maker). Received the decoration of ‘Chevalier of the Order of King Léopold’. Appointed maker to Brussels Conservatoire. Died 1929.
Reproductions of the Italian models are the salient features of his work, and offer a chance to obtain mementos of celebrated violins which have something besides the mere mechanical exactness to recommend them. Workmanship charged more or less with the personality of the craftsman, according as he may have inclined toward literal fidelity to the originals or a freer and bolder handling. Splendid oil varnish of various tints. Fine orchestral instruments, and those players who wish to own a violin of easy responsiveness will find their desire gratified by one of these, which may be truthfully said to embody the highest progress made by any Belgian and incontestably excel any other of the modern school of that country.
Hilaire Darche. Luthier
du Conservatoire Royal de Bruxelles.
L’An 19. .
Also branded. £90, 1959.

Born at Mirecourt, 1815. Brother of Joseph and Charles François. Worked for N. F. Vuillaume at Brussels. Established at Aix-La-Chapelle, 1840. Died 1873. Made more than 1,000 instruments.
Early Specimens justify his artistic ambition - workmanship skilful, Also had that kind of intuitive feeling of arriving at the tone specially suitable to each different model, and in every instance remarkably pure and responsive. Followed the models of Stradivarius, Guarnerius, and Maggini. Used a very thick red oil varnish of fine texture.
Charged (in 1840) about seven guineas for his instruments - a ridiculous price considering their superior order of construction. Exhibited these instruments at Frankfurt in 1842, and claimed to ‘innoculate’ (in some secret way) the exact old tone of each model replicated.
N. Darche lutheir
á Aix la Chapelle
Subsequently gave way to disturbing and frequently lengthy periods of alcoholism. During the sixties his work degenerated to the common Mirecourt type with brown varnish. Ultimately purchased violins in the white from French factories and only varnished them. Finally gave up the business altogether, and drifted to a pauper’s grave.
Copie de
Jiovani Paolo Magini
Brescia 1715.
Some of the Darche family at Brussels have used similar labels. Made in his young days, some splendid bows. Stamped ‘N. Darche x Bruxelles’.

Worked at Mirecourt from 1865. Died 1892. Pupil, son-in-law, and successor of N. Vuillaume. Entitled to a conspicuous place among the many productions from that town. Worked several years with J. B. Vuillaume.
Stradivarian modelling nicely typified in outline and sound-holes. Arching a shade more pronounced. Scroll not purely emblematical of fine workmanship. Other details generally well done though not superfinely. Spirit varnish of a clear and bright yellow shade. Tonal-quality fulfills the ordinary demands of orchestral players.
Fabrique de
A. Darte
à Mirecourt
Branded ‘Darte’ on the interior and on button.
Brand-mark acquired by Deblaye and Meunier at Mirecourt, 1925, and many instruments thus branded emanate from their factory.

Born in London, 1830. Violinist. Pupil of De Bériot. Soloist on Jullien’s provincial tours with his orchestra. Soloist at the London Philharmonic, and provincial Festivals. Also a capable organist. Died 1905.
Made a hobby of violin-making for many years. Modelled a few instruments on the Guarnerius he played on. Claimed to have perfectly reproduced the Cremona tone as well as the form. Ideal workmanship looks us full in the face. Sharply cut sound-holes without the tiniest blemish. Light browp varnish charmingly bringing out the beauty of the wood.
John Day. Londoni. Mus. Doc.
Violinist in Her Majesty’s
Private Band. fecit
Anno 1852.

Born at Liverpool, 1862.
Had a position of great responsibility during forty-odd years in the service of H.M. Customs, and much of his time spent on board ships at London, Plymouth, Swansea, Cardiff, Liverpool, and other towns. Enthusiastic admirer of fiddles since 17th year, but did not take special notice of instrument-differentiation until four years later. Cultivated the art of repairing instruments belonging to sea-faring officers - thus afforded unique opportunities of critically examining fine old specimens. Compared Amati with Stradivari, Guarneri, Ruggeri, and others, and tried to find out the reason of their superior tonal qualities. Researched systematically from this starting point, and sought information from every available source, books as well as instruments. Soon arrived at definite conclusions in a comparison of English, French, and German violins with those of Cremona.
Put to himself the following question:
Why do modern makers (having at their command the three requisites of equal quality of wood, probably better tools, and equal skill) fail to construct instruments equal to the old Italian? And answered “that the varnish used is inferior in toneproducing qualities”.
Therefore concentrated on a suitable preparation to fulfil, if possible, all the attributes of the old master formulas. Spent forty years on the exciting and elusive problem, had the usual “ups and downs” in experimenting, sometimes discouraged with totally negative results, but ultimately achieved hls goal. Led astray at first, like many others, on the amber theory, and made violins beautiful in appearance but tonally upset by the varnish, and henceforth discarded it. Found out that the only sure-road in this direction was to work retrogressively to the conditions existing during the old masters’ period, and while so doing, disabused his mind of the idea that any of them were chemists, or, in fact, anything other than painstaking workmen. And so the never-ending varnish fascination travels along its labyrinthian path of weird versus rational seeds.
Retired from the Civil Service 1924 and joined his son (William Samuel Day, Junior, born 1887) at the latter’s violin-making establishment at Plymouth. Enjoyed the personal friendship of Sarasate, Carrodus, and other noted violinists. Though advanced in age his heart and soul enthusiasm to create something approaching the old master type no-wise diminished, and fortunately for the continuance of artistic work immediate disposal was immaterial. Violins made by himself or jointly with son realise the non-exorbitant price of thirty-five pounds, and were eagerly purchased by amateurs and professionals.
All instruments of large model and varied outline - either Stradivarian or Guarnerian with slight modifications and constructively substantial throughout. Beauty of form and workmanship never disappointing to the most exacting critic of architectural design. Interior work every whit as carefully completed as the exposed portions. No attempt to skimp the thicknesses in travelling towards a full and clear tonal maturity. Most careful selection of woods for the table and backs - everything perfectly graduated. Especial attention given to the linings of the ribs. Scrolls strong and leonine in character, compelling admiration by the massive outlines. Beautiful curvature of outline, and breadth of bouts, offering absolute harmony with the very dignified heads. Sound-holes sharp yet graceful, straight from the knife, and splendidly balanced. These vary according to the model and the particular wood used, but always consistent with the rest of the scheme.
Both father and son very conscientious in their employment of material. Backs invariably of handsome flame. Belly wood sometimes of a silver grain pine, the markings of which are enhanced by a very rich and transparent varnish - a preparation of their own manufacture - of gorgeous appearance and certainly approaches the Cremonese in its velvety elasticity - the happy result of many weary hours of experimenting and incidental expenses attached to it. Various shades from yellow to dark red, but never brown. Tonal quality of Italian reediness yet brilliant and strong, also particularly responsive.
For repair work both senior and junior triumphed over any wreck.
Bows made by the younger Day include specimens which any soloist should be proud to possess. One cannot imagine anything more superior, ancient or modern. Styles based on those of Tourte, Tubbs, Panormo, Peccatte and others. Each of superfine workmanship - magnificent combination of strength with elasticity, and superbly mounted. Those people not biased by French productions should truthfully acknowledge the superlative of our own countryman.
W. S. Day
London 1912
Always written until 1923, also dated from the various places where the elder Day was stationed.
W. S. Day. Plymouth
Faciebat. Anno 1924

Son of the preceding. Worked at Leeds, 1836-1876. Had a shop in Black Swan Yard; later in Merrion Street; and finally in North Street.
Instruments (modelled after various types but usually of Stradivarian principles) rather attractive. But it is not often one gets a sight of them, for being by an Englishman of comparatively small fame, they are frequently overlooked. Average value £25.
Violas worth the complimentary reflections of good orchestral players.
Mark William Dearlove
Violin Maker. Leeds.
Exhibitor at the Great London
xhibitions 1851 and 1862.
(with date written)
Sometimes used a brand on the back “Dearlove, maker, Leeds”.


Born at Bouzemont near Mirecourt, 1874. Worked at several Parisien ateliers, and at Toulouse with Gautier, 1897-1900. Established at Mirecourt, 1900. Became technical director of the Deblaye and Meunier Amalgamation, 1922. Died 1929. Built violins of various modelling, graduated in excellence and price - £8 to £35 - Amati style (elegantly arched and red orange varnish); Lupot style (reddish-brown oil varnish shaded etc. to look old); Amati style (medium arching, onepiece back, and red orange varnish); Guarnerius style (highly-flamed maple, and beautiful golden yellow varnish); Ceruti style (shaded varnish); Stradivarian style (very elegant outline, and dark red-brown varnish); “Deblaye soloist model” (varnished full in modern style); “Deblaye artist model” (gorgeously-fine orange tinted varnish); Italian style (superfine in every department).
Amati to Stradivarian styles mostly the work of assistants, but finally “touched up” by Deblaye. Others are entirely personal work and executed without the aid of machinery.
Workmanship of irreproachable finish. Designs immaculate in beauty of curvature. Harmonical perfection attained in the attuning of the plates, and by an ingenious arrangement of the bass-bar. Tonal quality of excellent homogenial sonority and brilliancy, well-appreciated by many of the French symphony orchestra players. Woods especially chosen for acoustical properties as well as for prettiness. Produced violas of similar qualifications.
’Cellos of own creative modelling. £60. Red-brown oil varnish, plentifully applied Round mandolines named “La Vésuvienne”, and flat ones styled “Ritelli”.
Lutherie Artistique
Albert Deblaye, luthier
No. 452 A. 1924.
Branded “No. 452 A. Deblaye”. Each specimen autographed.
Also produced bows for violin and ’cello. Pernambuco sticks, nicely finished, and of splendid balance. Stamped “Deblaye”.
Bridges of specially prepared material similarly stamped.

Worked at Tournay (Belgium), 1730-1787. Reputed to have been (in youth) a pupil of Stradivari.
Model has the individuality of character, the symmetry and proportions, and much of the mechanical art of the broad Strad. Arching invariably slightly flatter, though we have seen a few specimens of higher gradient. Workmanship generally very good, but here again he had bad days when he seems to have been less precise. There is a certain originality, but without exaggeration, in the rather thick edges and corners, and in the extremely narrow and fine threads of the purfling, but neither prevents the contour of instrument from being absolutely harmonious. Frequently careless in choice of wood and regarded prettily marked material as of a secondary nature. Most of the violins and violas have a wide grain top, and a rather plain maple back. Occasionally, of course, he managed to get finer grain material, also some of an attractive flame.
Three varnishes - a rich orange yellow, a red brown of good quality, and a red, rather dry, not altogether removed from the censure of the eye. On some instruments the top has orange varnish, whilst the ribs and back have red. All instruments are plentifully wooded - a matter to receive our eulogium. Tone full and beautifully even on the four strings but perhaps a little disappointing in brilliancy.
’Cellos generally follow the smaller pattern with more arching than that of the violins. Sound-holes always fastidiously accurate in shape and distance from each other. Today’s price £85.
fait a Tournay par
Ambroise de Comble. 1756
Ambroise De Comble
à Tournay. 1741

Worked at Venice, 1722-1785. Very changeable man, if we are to judge by the variety of labels.
Outline belongs to the Cremona school, wavering between Guarnerius and Stradivarian. Body length just under 14 inches. Model sometimes of broad dimensions - other examples slightly drawn in, and having higher arching, some having quite a sharp gradient. Generally, in the contour, there is a want of dignity, a want of harmony which just misses the perfection and grace of his prototypes. Scroll has not that incomparable superiority of the Cremona masters, though often bold. Sound-holes conceived by a mind and cultivated to be a little different from predecessors.
The wood varies. Sometimes spruce of uneven medium grain on one side, and wide on the other. Ribs and backs generally of prettily marked, strongly curled, and small-figured maple. Varnish also varies in tint though the quality is always of the same elasticity - a rather lustrous yellow, a red brown of the Montagnana kind, a deeper brown, and occasionally a red. Tone of excellent carrying power, combined with sweetness and richness, placing the instruments in that useful category of being suitable for virtuosi or chamber music.
This changeableness of form and labels, and the long working period, has given grounds for some experts to assume there were two of the same name working at different periods. Today’s prices up to £600.
Micael Deconet
fecit Venetiis, 1752.
(rather pronounced lettering)
Michele deconet
fecit Venetiis. anno 1754.
(some written, also ‘deconet’ is without capital D)
Michael Deconet
Fecit Venetiis, Anno 1759
(small lettering)

Worked at Padua, 1754-1792.
Instruments quite similar to some of J.B.
Michiel Deconet
Padoua. L’anno 1790
(small lettering)
Michael Deconer
fecit Venetiae
An. Dom. 17. .
Michiel Deconet
fecit Venerij anno 1786.
In 1929, Lyon and Healy of Chicago catalogued a very fine viola at 1,500 dollars. Orange red varnish on beautiful material. Formerly in the famous collection of Partello. £300, 1959.

Born at Brussels, 1900. Apprenticed to Emile Laurent (père) in same city.
Worked for Mangenot at Mirecourt, and for Silvestre and Maucotel at Paris. Established own premises 1926.
Produced first instrument 1920. Stradivarian and Guarnerian modelling, also one of own creation of slightly larger proportions than either of the Cremonese. Reddish brown oil varnish of fine transparency applied in the Vuillaume style. Relationship of the left and right of the outline, scroll, and sound holes, perfectly maintained. Workmanship as refined as the design is artistic. Varnishing, too, in delightful accordance.
Georges Defat
à Paris. No. 10. Année 1922
(decorative border, and signed G. Defat)
Also branded “G. Defat à Paris”.

Born 1820. Died 1887. Worked at Montagnana (Province of Padua).
Modelling not always subscribing to a high degree of gracefulness - sometimes even rather primitive as well as singular. Workmanship often has the appearance of being hastily finished, nevertheless may be relied upon to behave itself in good company - not an uncommon occurrence with apparently carelessly dressed offsprings. Purfling frequently very imperfect, and sometimes so faint as to be almost lost at certain parts. Good acoustical belly wood - likewise excellent material for the backs though often comparatively destitute of flame. Reddish brown varnish not particularly rich or transparent. £20 (1910). Today’s price £65.
Degani Domenico
fecit in Maggio 18. .
(sometimes written)

Born 1840. Son of Domenico. Worked at Montagnana until 1883; at Trieste 1885-1888; subsequently at Venice. Known as “Degani and figlio” from 1898. Died 1915.
Created own modelling, and skilfully avoided anything strained or far-fetched. Body length l4-1/4 inches. Every curve of the outline splendidly sweeped. Clean and precise approach to corners. Corners and edges very distinctively portrayed, but without any touch of thickness, undue prominence, or heaviness. Ribs generally less deep than the usual. Five-ply purfling, three black and two white stripes, which deserves the appellation of “superb neatness” if somewhat singular. Ingeniously-carved scroll, volute perfectly graduated, and edges treated with a sort of flange. Sound-holes unite in preserving the originality of whole contour.
Exercised activity in finding acoustical and pretty woods, also equal judgment in the use of them. Varnish prepared from a secret formula of his own - yellow and reddish brown shades, of rather dull surface though of good quality. Tonal quality very clear, responsive, and Italianesque - one that will have great futuristic significance.
Also produced instruments modelled on Cremonese principles (with ordinary purfling) and about 20 specimens (at Montagnana) of Albani modelling and dark reddish brown varnish - now eagerly sought by collectors. Today’s price £100.
Eugenio Degani
Piu volte premiato
Medaglio d’ore 18. .
Degani Eugenio
quattordioi medaglio di merito
Venezia - anno 189. .

Born at Montagnana, 1875. Son and pupil of Eugenio at Venice. Worked at Cincinnati, 1935.
Made several divergencies from father’s model, but retained the somewhat shallow ribs. Body length 14 inches. Sometimes medium arching of considerable originality, forming a graceful “moat” round the outline. Golden and reddish brown shades of oil varnish very soberly toned down. Backs often of pretty figuration. Tonal quality crystally clear and firm. Today’s price £60 to £85.
Giulio Degani
S. Fosca 2418, + Venezia.
Degani Giulio di Eugenio
Fece in Venezia anno 1893.
Degani Giulio di Eugenio
premiate con gran diploma d’onore in Milano
e medaglia d’oro in Torino
anno 19. .
fece in Venezia


Worked at Lille (France), 1754-1790.
This accomplished man rather faithfully repeated the principal characteristics of the large Stradivarius model. Very charming violins, without a point that does not offer some interest. Sound-holes indicative of thoroughly good art, and seem to stand there “intelligently”. Scroll carved with great freedom, yet with infinite care. Purfling also emblematical of thoughtful labour. Reddish yellow varnish, occasionally red-brown, both of rich texture. Always magnificently-figured wood. The French are frequently accused of only getting a kind of monotonous reedy tone, and that, with all their incomparable technical facility of workmanship they seldom reach to real sympathetic quality. But here, at any rate, is one exception, for the tone is not only round and penetrating but of a deep mellowness as well. Did not produce many violins. Best period, 1785.
Five-stringed viol dated 1766, with yellow varnish tinged with red, created a mild sensation when exhibited at Paris, 1878.
Beautiful guitar, dated 1768, is in the Paris Conservatoire Collection. Another magnificent guitar, dated 1775, made of tortoise-shell, and inlaid with ivory and mother-o’-pearl.
Eleven-stringed guitar, dated 1772, had a lute or mandoline shaped back, with a “rosace” of sculptured wood and gold - in the Snoeck Collection at Gand. The same Collection had another guitar with a cygnus-shaped neck, ten horizontal pegs, a “rosace” formed of ornamentations delicately disposed in cone-shapes.
Gérard J. Deleplanque
Luthier, rue de la grande
chaussée, coin de celle des
Dominicains à Lille. 1788.
Au Violon de Crémone,
Gérard J. Deleplanque
Luthier, Place de Ribour, près
l’Hôtel-de-Ville, à Lille, 1790
(decorative border)
Gérard Deleplanque, Luthier
à Lille.

Born at Mirecourt, 1861. Served apprenticeship in that town. Pupil of Victor Rombaux and Chardin. Worked five years in the Atelier of Silvestre, Paris. Opened own workshop in the rue de Paradis, Paris, 1892; later removed to the rue Richer. Awarded gold medals at Nantes, 1904; Liége, 1905 and 1906; and at other Exhibitions. Maker and repairer to the Paris Conservatoire. Working for Williams & Co., at Toronto, 1920. Died 1928. Inventor of an “Ideal Peg”, with two conic ends.
Built several original forms of instruments, especially some designed for the acrobatic performances of musical clowns.
Many violins, violas, and ’cellos; attractive as any of the modern French school; often sought for by connoisseurs in search of instruments of the highest possible skilled workmanship. Very rich oil varnish of various shades. Tone quality remarkably mellow and very very clear.
Exposition Universelle. Liége. Grand Prix (Collective)
A. Delivet
No. . . Année 19. Ex-Ouvrier de H. C. Silvestre
Made in the workshops of
The R. S. Williams & Sons Co. Limited. Toronto, Canada.
(yellow paper)
Bearing a fancifully-designed violin and bow - fac-similes of medals and other scrolled work.
Also instruments produced for the Canadian Firm divided into three classes:
(1) Branded “A. Delivet” on the inside and under the saddle above endpin on the outside - 250 dollars.
(2) 200 dollars.
(3) Marked “Sous la Direction” - 150 dollars - these not solely made by him but by assistant workmen.
A. Delivet; Luthier
ex-ouvrier de H. C. Silvestre
Paris année 1896 No
(Parisian label)

see CORTE.

Born 1909. Son and pupil of G. Worked at Florence. Repairer to the Cherubini Conservatorio in that city; also to the Academy at Sienna.
Splendid modelling; various old Italian types; warm-looking spirit varnish of orange shade.
Alfredo Del Lungo di Guiseppe
Fece in Firanze nel 1949

Full name: Jean Joseph Honoré. Born at Mirecourt, 1794. Died there 1883. Spent several years in various workshops at Paris. Ultimately established at Mirecourt. Gained Exhibition medals at Paris 1839, 1844 and 1855; also at London, 1862.
Early instruments especially attractive in being substantially built - all departments of modelling inspired by that of Stradivarius and others of the Italian school. Workmanship “à la finesse” in all verity. Scrolls always conducive to the dignity he continually visualised. Sound-holes not surpassed by any maker of any period or school for perfect grace of curve. Edges never very pronounced, and here again we see the essence of delicacy. Same deftness accentuates the squarishly designed corners.
Enthusiasm of an ardent young man strivina towards individuality plainly discernible on every instrument of this early period.
Varnish (generally of an orange yellow shade) unfortunately the antithesis of elasticity and warmth. Some specimens have table wood of Carpathian pine - a material rather too brittle and strong in fibre to be ideal for tonal quality; grain (a perfectly straight one) often wider towards the sides. Generally of yery long Stradivarius pattern, very flat arching, and Maggini-like shoulders. Of remarkably powerful tone, though perhaps rather blatant, but certainly not hard - and its sonority is becoming mellower. Nevertheless, we do not think it can ever reach the peculiar sensitiveness necessary to the enjoyment of soloists and their listeners. Seldom labelled. H D branded inside on the back and within a circle.
Later set out to traverse the busy road of commercialism, and from the year 1844 his indefatigable activity resulted in the enormous production of about 600 violins yearly, for which he asked 5 to 150 francs according to the different grades.
Modelling altogether similar to that of the many Strad-Vuillaumes. Influence of Vuillaume also easily traced in the colour and style of applying the varnish - colour generally reddish with a slight purplish tendency and rather hard-looking, applied and rubbed off here and there to give instruments an appearance of wear. Became enormously popular, particularly in England, and the name Derazey was on everybody’s lips. No finer wrought commercial violins have ever come from Mirecourt; undoubtedly their finished workmanship influenced the many other makers in that town to emulate his achievements.
The particular point of interest in these violins is artistic combination of the sound-holes with the waist curves; beautiful originality quite distinct from others of the Mirecourt school.
Years after death, violins bearing his labels were poured into the trade, but these have been the productions successively of his son, then Mangenot, and finally Laberte-Magnié.
H. Derazey
à Mirecourt
Médaille de 1re classe
Exposition Universelle 1855
(designs of medals on left and right)
Occasionally branded “H. Derezey père”. Some of the modern productions give his name as “H. Derasey”. Today’s prices £80 to £90.

Son of the preceding. Worked at Mirecourt, 1850 to the year of death, 1890. Succeeded to the business of Nicolas fils, 1864; and his father’s, 1879. Retained the well-known sign associated with the Nicolas family “A la Ville de Crémone. Ateliers de lutherie fondès en 1780”.
Prolific productivity of violins priced from £7 to £16.
Slightly less meritorious workmanship than that of parent. Rather splendid modelling after the Italian masters. Backs made from the choicest old seasoned Transylvanian maple - finest Swiss pine for tables, guaranteed to be of the most particularly resonant kind. Oil varnish of various shades, specially prepared from own formula. The usual decently responsive but new quality of tone of all mass-production instruments. Altogether handsome affairs, without individuality certainly, but standing out rather conspicuously among the miscellaneous assortment of marketable commercial violins. £40 to £50, 1959.
Justin Derazey, Luthier
éleve de Honoré Derazey
fait à Mirecourt, 1862.
J. Derazey. Luthier
à Mirecourt. 1865.
(copper-plate lettering)
Justs Derazey, Luthier
à Mirecourt. Vosges. 18-
Jt. Derazey
Hors concours - Luthier Mirecourt.
Design of medals above “Hors concours”. A violin-shaped brand and initials “J.D.” often found inside.
Instruments bearing his label now manufactured by Laberte-Magnié.

Born at Mirecourt, 1848. Son and pupil of Georges. Worked in the Atelier of Silvestre at Lyons, 1866-1869. Served four years of military service. Worked with Mirecourt at Paris, 1873-1884. Established own workshop, 1878. Died 1919. Made more than 250 instruments, each challenging comparison with any of the modern French school, whether in the beauties of learned design or boldness yet exquisite delicacy of workmanship. Modelling follows the Stradivarian or Guarnerian. Excellent quality of oil varnish; dark red-brown; occasionally red. Tone generally of hard quality though strong.
Auguste Deroux à Paris
An 1885.
S. A. Deroux
16, rue Geoffroy-Marie.
No. 117. Paris. 1899
(Monogram placed above date)

Worked in the Via Speransella, at Naples, 1890-1900.
Gagliano characteristics in modelling, but all details slightly less robust. Excellent wood treated to good varnish. Tonal quality of easily produced brightness, the two lower strings being as clear as the higher.

Worked at Naples, 1880-1902. £80.

Worked with the Chanot family at Manchester, London and Paris.
Established premises at Leeds and Bradford, 1899; Birmingham, 1903; and at Lacey Green (Cheshire), 1906.
Instruments built under the influence of ancient models, but reasonably Frenchified in style. Workmanship never involved by hand perplexities. Varnish rather felicitously applied.

Born 1775. Probably studied in very early years with G. B. Ceruti at Cremona, also with Jerome Guarnerius. Settled at Turin 1812, and became associated with Pressenda 1821-1845. Died 1846. Husband of Madame D’Espine (star in the vocalising firmament).
Many instruments tally almost exactly with the outline and arching of a Joseph Guamerius. Sound-holes frequently excellent replicas. Scrolls less infallible representations of that dignified style - some black edged. Backs of pretty curly maple. Rich quality of golden orange varnish - sometimes a hard-looking red without shading. Certain specimens copiously Pressenda-Stradivarian, but not always very carefully finished in workmanship.
Others belong to the Ceruti-Amatese school, which are not of paramount importance in design or tone. Old-looking brownish yellow varnish.
Tonal quality (of the Guaernerian models) full, clear, and of very satisfactory carrying power, but never of rich Italian quality. One example, dated 1823, realised 1,500 dollars in the United States, 1920.
Instruments frequently bear labels of Pressenda and Ceruti. Piatti (renowned quarter player, associated many years with Joachim at the Monday Popular Concerts in London), played for some time on a D’Espine ’cello presented to him by the maker at Pavia, 1842.
Pre-eminently interesting are the very few Guarnerian violins. Finely toned, and valued at £100 (1925). Today’s price up to £250.
Alessandrus d’Espine fecit +
Taurini anno Domini 1828 +
Despine Hieronymi Guarnerii, Josephi Nep
Cremonen, Discipulus. Taurini /ecit
A.1819 +
Name sometimes written with pencil or ink on the inside of back. Other variants of the name: “Dèspin” and “D’espines”.

Born at Madison (Virginia). Worked at Detroit, 1920.
Cremonese models. Brown or golden yellow varnish.
Joseph Deulin
Violin Maker
Detroit (Mich). 1928
(with initials double-circled)

Worked in London with B. Simon Fendt, 1850. Went to Fitzroy, Melbourne (Australia) about 1864, and worked there until death, 1920.
Violins, which for many years enjoyed all possible popularity from professional players on account of the strong and full tone, but during his reclining years they unaccountably lost favour and were seldom sought for. A decline probably occasioned by the apparently fatal mistake of persistently adhering to rather excessive proportions. General measurements: body-length, 14-9/16 inches; upper bouts, 7; middle, 4-3/4; lower, 8-5/8, ribs, 1-1/8.
Too broad across the shoulders to permit of the necessary facility of ascending to the higher positions. Structurally magnificent though unwise in size. Chose belly wood that was obligatory to fine tonal results. Workmanship comparatively flawless. Scroll given a mutual robustness without heaviness. Sound-holes in perfect concert with the splendidly flat modelling. Transparent and rich-looking oil varnish of own preparation.
Produced ’cellos and double-basses greatly patronised by Australians.
J. Devereux
Violin and Double Bass Maker
Marion St. Fitzroy. 1867.
Also a professional contrabassist - frequently played at Government House.

see VITOR.

Born at Perth (Scotland), 1854. Constructed a fiddle to amuse himself soon after 10th year. Subsequently studied with several Scottish makers, produced many specimens before arriving at 20th year, but was dissatisfied with the uncertainty of insuring proper tone quality. Stumbled on the Ghladni system of acoustics 1883, achieved more results, and ultimately made the decision of becoming a professional maker. Worked at Blackpool for many years. Migrated to America (owing to a breakdown in health), 1910. Resided at Pittsburg, San Francisco, Fresno, and finally (in 1920) at Cupertino (California).
Author of “The Acoustics of Violin-making” (Edinburgh, 1893).
In these experimental ideas be examined they will not appear extravagant or deficient; being in general founded upon the critical comparison of the old master instruments, but discussed with uncommon freedom. Affirmed the improbability of simply one plate-note as tested by Savart’s method of bowing on the edge of the plates, and definitely claims to obtain nine notes (more or less detetminate) from each plate, also an additional one from the scroll of the whole violin. Used (for testing these notes) a short and heavy bow roughly made of strong black horsehair. Some tones naturally came with ease, others with difficulty, resulting in a medley of over-tones rather than true notes.
Whether his notions are infallible or otherwise must be left to all those researchers who pass (and probably waste) years in delving through a labyrinth to which there is no conclusive outlet.
Produced many instruments at Blackpool, some purporting to be replicas of Stradivarius or Guarnerius, but others mostly designed on entirely original principles. Several of these, though interesting, are somewhat diametrically opposed to familiar traditional traits.
Designs not altogether apt or elegant and beautiful in themselves, though he perspicuously arranged each part to be perfectly apposite to the other. But there is no superfine workmanship, nor any particular animation and splendour of tone. Weight generally 18 to 20 ounces - five in excess of the average Cremona. Bellythicknessing reaching a 1/4 inch at the centre and occasionally 5/16 - possibly principles fundamentally against absolute free emission of tone, though of fine strength. E string brilliant up to the fifth position, but higher register requires very forcible bowing; A string very good and nicely-penetrating; D string dull and somewhat muffled on the upper notes, and the G string thick and quite unpurified. Later violins made in California are built more in accordance with Italian prototypes. Eliminated much of his former complex plate system (which was perhaps a delusion engendered through an enthusiastic but possibly blind groping), and, advancing years having brought about the inevitable self-condemnation which all of us experience with regard to initiatory efforts of ambition, etc., produced instruments of more prudent dimensions and greatly-improved workmanship.
So now we get a particularly even total quality, one without that sometimes heinous raw newness, and of a clarity and suavity well calculated to fire the imagination of any soloist. Annexed to all these excellencies is the golden reddish oil varnish of own preparation, comparable to a vineyard planted with the choicest vines, cultivated with the greatest care, and producing the finest fruit.
Joseph Guarnerius
by Frank de Voney 1893.
I.H.S. with a cross within a circle.
Advertised that he could produce replicas of any standard models, and also give the particular tonal-timbre of each.

see ZORZI.

Worked in London, 1750-1790.
Stainer models of no cultivated taste or nice accuracy. Tone only a step removed from very poor.
Edward Dickenson
Maker, at the Harp and Crown in the Strand
near Exeter Change.
London 1750.

Born at Stirling (Scotland), 1725. Worked in London and Cambridge, 1750-1780. Amati-pattern instruments exhibiting sobriety of correctness, and a kind of vigour, which should elevate them in the ranks of English violins. Workmanship has all the artistic qualities of the Italian style. Nicely-figured wood for backs. Light brown varnish. Rather small tone, but of silvery character.
John Dickeson
fecit in Cambridge, 1776
Name sometimes given as “Dickson”.

Worked at Mirecourt, 1816-1830.
Not bad workmanship, but not easy to divest the mind of ideas that we are looking at results of mass factory production. General style of sound-holes, and similarity of the scrolls help to confirm the illusion. Arching rightfully proper, and considerable harmony preserved throughout the entire contour. Sometimes double purfling. Spirit varnish, pretty tint, either light or dark brown. Useful instruments for theatre work. £40.
Dominicus Didelot
A la ville de Cremone
Also used the brandmark:
A Cremone
Dominique Didelot

Instruments made at Mirecourt, 1925. £15.
Third-rate workmanship.
J. Didelot
Lutherie Lorraine
(name printed as written)

Worked with Thibouville-Lamy, 1898; at Mirecourt, and at Mattaincourt (Vosges), 1925.
Reproductions of old Italians, especially the Messie Strad. Superior workmanship. Brownish red or orange red varnish. £20.
Marius Didier. Luthier
1926. Mattaincourt No. 30.
Exposition des Meilleurs Artisans
de France
Grand Prix

Born 1908. Son and pupil of M. Worked in Metz, 1936. Won several gold medals at Paris and Toulouse. Reproductions of old Italian types. Splendid workmanship. Orange, or shaded reddish brown varnish, masterly applied. £50.
Paul Didier
Médailles d’Or-Grand Prix.
rue du Faisan
No. . . à Metz, l’an. . . .

Born 1890. Pupil of Bazin. Worked for Darche at Brussels. Established at Mirecourt, 1924.
Splendid hand-made replicas of ancient violins, faithfully depicting all familiar elements; rich and sheeny reddish yellow or bright red varnish.
Also violas and ’cellos.
Amédèe Dieudonne
No Mirecourt. Anno 1926
(with signature)

Born at Casalbuttana, 1878. Worked at Cremona, 1920. Died 1937.
Violins and violas of personalized modelling, good varnish and tone. Inventor (1922) of a Violetto - compass between viola and ’cello - played like a viola. Body length 40 cm; upper bouts 20.7; lower 27.2.
Digiuni Luigi
fece in Cremona
Anno N.

Born 1925. Pupil of Paralupi. Worked at Rome, 1945.
Modelling (with a few originalities) showing splendid workmanship, and foreshadowing greater achievements as he gains experience. Paralupi’s varnish.
Armando Di Lelio
fece in Roma Anno 1949
(with signature)

Born at Mirecourt, 1866. Apprenticed to Paul Bailly; worked for Blanchard at Lyons, 1890; established at Marseilles, 1897-1926. Associated with Lorange. Died 1941.
Graceful and beautiful, significant and dignified in form; violins, violas and ’cellos. Modelling inspired by examples of Vuillaume and Silvestre, outlined after Stradivarius, Amati, and Guarnerius. Oil varnish of orange red tint (prepared after formula of Vuillaume). harmonises with the sumptuousness of the wood. Tonal quality of considerable strength and resonance. Some violins built in the style of Rocca - much appreciated.
Diter & Lorange, Luthiers.
à Marseille. l’an 18. .
Justin Diter
maître luthier
Marseille. 1928
J and P Diter, Luthiers
à Marseille l’an 19. .
Justin Diter
Année No.
(initials J D in design on left, and Arms-of-Marseilles on right)

Brother of the preceding. Born at Mirecourt, 1879. Specially studied with Charles Bazin for bow-making. Worked with his brother at Marseilles, 1925. Died 1942. First-period bows follow lines set up by Tourte and other famous French makers, but later gradually evolved own principles and these are particularly applicable to the taste and requirements of modern brilliant players.

Born at Dover. Studied violin and organ in twelfth year. Also made primitive attempts in constructing old viols and lutes.
Ultimately became a first-class violinist, musical director at Folkestone 1912, organist at the Church, conductor of orchestral societies, considerable repute as violin teacher, altogether a very versatile and thoroughly artistic musician - enjoying an enviable position in this respect throughout the counties of Kent and Sussex 1935.
Went deeply into the construction of stringed instruments from 1895. Visited Italy in pursuit of further studies, 1912.

Born at Dulcinio (Montenegro), 1891. Lived at Cairo, 1914. Went to Bologna to study with Pollastri, 1920. Won diploma of merit, 1925. Returned to Egypt and set up at Alexandria. Moved to Cairo, 1941. Modelling more or less Stradivarian, absolutely free of any new-fangled ideas interiorally, winsome arching, fine curvaturing of the scroll, graceful sound-holes, and good textured varnish.
Instruments highly praised by Kubelik, Huberman, and Heifeta. Presented King Farouk with a quartet.
Marco Dobretsovitch
fece in Cairo d’Egitte Anno 1943
(with signature)
Marco Dobretsovitch
Fece in Alessandria d’Egitto Anno 1934.
(with signature)
Instruments dated 1926 to about 1930 have similar words but no signature.

Worked in London. Died 1857.
Produced many carefully made bows of really nice balance. £30.

Born at Stirling (Scotland), 1752. Eldest son of Edward (bow maker, born 1705, died 1810, age 105; worked in Scotland and London). First a gun-lock fitter, then a money-scale maker, and finally found his true vocation in the making of bows. Came to live in London, and assiduously devoted his hours to perfecting of bows. Lived many years at a house opposite Kew Gardens, Surrey. Died of bronchitis in Richmond Infirmary, 1839, and buried at Kew.
Exquisitely made bows having all the ideal qualities that bring them into direct harmony with the eye. No ugly curve in the head, or abruptness in the arching that could jar on the most sensitive to absolute nicety. Secured such a perfect balance together with artistic workmanship and beautiful wood that he rightly was termed the “English Tourte”. Notwithstanding the slenderness of the sticks they have wonderful power, capable of all the surprising variety and complexity of strokes, elasticity, attacking or powerfully sustaining a note, and all the most delightful gradations of tone that an artist wishes to employ in his performances. They do not admit of wide spread of hair, but in our opinion this is an advantage rather than a defect, for too much spreading of hair is not conducive to the production of an ideal tone.
Unfortunately they have one defect, and that is in being the minutest bit too short for the bravura player. But for this rather important drawback they would rank with those of Tourte, for his hand and judgment were quite as infallible as the great Frenchman.
Stamped his name in large plain letters on the side of the nut and on the stick; but so many have been remounted that now the name may only be seen on the stick. Made all classes of bows of various values, and thus his reputation is considerably minimized, as his finest bows are fewer than the others.
Moreover, there are hundreds of guinea bows stamped “Dodd”, or “J. Dodd” that are the productions of various bow-making firms. These and other cheaper “mongrel” dodges of some dealers have been the means of arousing approbrium from some players concerning the name of Dodd, who have not initiated themselves into the art of detecting genuine specimens or knowing the marked difference between those and the forgeries. A large number of his bows have been unnecessarily thinned down, consequently reducing them to being practically worthless. Used both round and octagon sticks - genuine specimens invariably dark in colour. He could never be pers0uaded to take pupils, and had no desire for anybody to know of and perpetuate his methods. In fact he so assiduously strove to maintain his secret of cutting the wood that he refused to reveal it for a bribe of £1,000 pounds, although frequently destitute of the wherewithal to get a satisfying meal. His method of cutting has been accounted rather primitive, and was not usually adopted by other bow-makers. He cut the sticks to the required sweep out of a block, and thus got that delightful “Cambre” or spring by altogether dispensing with the prevalent plan of cutting straight and then bending by heating the fibres.
Some bows mounted in jewels - made for members of the Royal family residing at what is now known as Kew Gardens. Arthur Dykes of London is the proud owner of the obsolete or “Corelli” bow made by Dodd, and he considers it to be by far the most fully developed and perfectly preserved ancient bow in the universe. It is made of the finest obtainable pernambuco and is wonderfully cambered.
Dodd, though a genius of eccentric proclivity, was very illiterate, and according to Dr. Sellé (a wealthy patron of his, who lived at Richmond, and who largely assisted him when in need of the ordinary necessities of living) he was unable to write anything correctly except his own name. Of small stature - rather waddled than walked. Negligent in dress, wearing a worn out coat of the most dilapidated description, short corduroy trousers, and broad brimmed hat. Quaint personality - a regular frequenter of the public-house for his favourite tipple “Pearl”. Walked home many times with his pockets full of oyster-shells begged from various stalls, and from these he cut out the pearl for the slides and ornamentations of his bows, which accounts for the characteristic plainness of this particular department of his work. Often at a loss for silver for the mountings, and his old house-keeper frequently berated him for using up several of her metal spoons. Dr. Sellé has stated that he saw Dodd cut out the identical shape of a bow from a rough plank with only the aid of a curiously constructed saw. He must have had remarkable aptitude to accomplish so much with so little.
Last years saddened by great poverty; mainly got his daily food and drink through the charitable intentions of a few friends. £40.

Third son of Edward. Apprenticed to a firm of brewers; ultimately owned his own business; started bow-making in Blue Bell Alley, Mint Street, Southwark, 1786-1789. Dealer in and maker of violins in New Street, Covent Garden, London, 1798. Moved to St. Martin’s Lane, Charing Cross, 1809. Finally became a harp and piano maker in Berners Street.
Instruments labelled with his name, but were almost entirely made by two clever assistants in his workshop (Fendt and Lott) who were in his employment for many years.
Had a cultivated knowledge of Italian instruments, and specialised in varnishing, claimed to be possessor of a wonderful secret (studiously kept to himself), and varnished, unaided, the work of his assistants. Very fine varnish, particularly rich and transparent, in shades from golden amber to deep golden red. Though in his day the composition of this preparation was a secret, it has since been scientifically proved to have been of the usual gums and resins, but mixed more methodically than his contemporaries attempted.
Violins and ’cellos modelled after Stainer, Amati, Stradivarius, Bergonzi, and Guarnerius - altogether show that the hands of his assistant workmen were wielded with great mechanical dexterity in the essential beauty and correctness of design. Tone not purely ideal, but has much facility of production.
’Cellos frequently catalogued at £50 (1920).
T. Dodd
Violin, Violoncello
and Bow Maker
New Street
Covent Garden
Dodd, Maker
92 St. Martin’s Lane.
Perfect copies of Stradivarius,
Amati, Stainer, &c.
Note. - The only possessor of the recipe for preparing the original Cremona oil varnish. Instruments improved and repaired.
Business token in the form of a coin. Front: Instruments tun’d and lent to hire. (Also bearing the head of Handel the composer). Back: Dodd’s cheap Shop for Musical Instruments, New Street, Covent Garden (with a radiated Lyre).

Born in Northumberland, 1817. Self-taught, and in 12th year amused himself with construction of fiddles. Went to Edinburgh, 1863. Died there, 1896. Attained considerable notoriety through advertising that “he was the only fiddle-maker who had discovered the real Cremona varnish”.
Produced about 300 instruments. Generally rather heavily built. Outline and arching completely in accordance with orthodox principles. Workmanship surprisingly splendid, though the scroll perhaps has a little less artistic triumph. Tone, though strong, does not meet with much patronage on account of its lack of mellow sonority. Dark brown varnish, thickly applied, not complimentary to his self-lauded powers in this particular matter. Instruments seldom realise more than £10.
Edward Dodds
1 Charlotte Place
Edinburgh, 1891.
Unscrupulous vendors have occasionally obliterated the letter “S” in Dodds, and altered the date in order to foist them on the public as the work of a Dodd.


Worked at Trieste, 1802-1856. Gained experience in Storioni’s workshop at Cremona. Instruments emblematic of a persevering and patient hand, but they only show tame subservience to the Storioni model. Purfling gives no indication of a master’s power, but has just that ordinary merit of being done by a man not especially trying his best. No delicacy about the complexities of the scroll - nothing but a sort of unfinished vigour. Fairly correct Guarnerius outline and the flat arching (though not a rigid imitation of that model), well thought out. Stradivarius-like sound-holes prove the maker’s concentrative application. Wood for top usually of strong, perfectly regular, and rather wide fibres. That for back, seldom other than fairly plain sycamore. Yellowish red varnish, possibly spirit, no alluring lustre. Tone certainly rather powerful, but for an Italian type of violin there is only a scanty pittance of real sweetness.
“A” -
Giovanni Dollenz
Fecit in Trieste, Anno 1835
Original arbeit von
Giovanni Dollenz, Trieste, 1830
garantiert von Hamona & Co.
Stuttgart. Handlung alter
meisterinstrumente, 1947
Used three kinds of label, same wording as example “A”, each with decorative border, but with lettering different according to period. First period 1802 in italicised type; second 1827 in ordinary lettering; third 1832 has the maker’s name in square type, and the remaining words italicised. £125, 1959.
Bows bearing his name show that he had regulated knowledge of elasticity combined with strength.

Son and pupil of the preceding. Worked at Trieste from 1850. Died 1889. Produced about 130 violins, violas and ’cellos.
Rather flat modelled instruments, not altogether satisfying our sense of the artistic. No two parts seem really wedded together, therefore the contour is far removed from ideality. Modeller’s art also somewhat scantily exhibited in the cutting of the scroll - usually large. Sound-holes generally rather wide, sometimes set too far apart. Purfling close to edge, often uneven. Table wood not always well chosen, and frequently of wide grain. Oil-spirit varnish of reddish brown shade not applied with all the resources that an artist can command. Tone rather full but lacking in sonority and sweetness. Only occasionally did he step out of his accustomed ordinary style, and then violas and ’cellos seem to have had greater attention. Also red varnish.
Giuseppe Dollenz No. 102
Fecit in Trieste. Anno 1887

Bow maker. Born 1913. Son of Otto. Worked at Wernitzgrün (Saxony), 1938. Estimable bows, refined workmanship. Stamped “Heinz Dolling”.

Born at Markneukirchen, 1862. Died 1923. Son and pupil of Hermann Moritz. Worked with Ludwig Glaesel, then with Lieblich at Breslau; finally with August Riechers at Berlin. Having passed through these experience-gaining preliminaries, returned to paternal roof, and remained there until 1885.
Established the Vogtländische Musikinstrumenten-Fabrik, 1886. Won medals at the Zwickau Exhibition, 1906, and at Berlin, 1907. First productions entirely handmade and minutely modelled after Stradivarius, Ruggerius, and Gaudagnini. Made a speciality of ’cellos and double-basses. Some Viol d’Amours especially beautiful and accepted by connoisseurs as wonderful reproductions of old masters. Later, engaged the most competent men of his district and entered the commercial road of mass production. Usual imitations of standard models. All instruments (of wide European and American popularity), reach the summit of excellence in their own particular sphere. Varnishing in particular splendidly done in various shades. Gratifying to record progress, and doubly so to recognise the continued perseverance in the well-doing of a firm (now carried on by other members of the family, and assistants) which, from its start, entered the field with the intention of improving the manufacture of “trade” instruments - an ambition far more effectively accomplished than other firms whose existence can be dated from many years previously.
Facsimile of signature branded. £80.
Hermann Dölling Jr.
Especially excellent Stainer models. Single line purfiing, and reddish brown varnish.

Worked at Brescia, 1782. Interesting modelling of medium proportions. Sloping shoulders rather effective. Sound-holes somewhat straight and wide, reminding of a Gasparo da Salo. Gracefully curved scroll, with slight fluting on both front and sides of the peg-box. Brown shade of smooth varnish, brilliant in texture. Powerful tonal quality, but not sharply clear or penetrating. Label bears the month when the instrument was completed.

Born at Tayport, Scotland, 1835. Emigrated to Melbourne, Australia, 1854. Considered to be the best and most prolific maker in that town. Died in his 92nd year, 1927. Produced about 250 violins, violas and ’cellos. Had a partiality in later years for modelling after a Guarnerius. Measurements: body length 14-1/4 inches, upper bouts 6-3/4, lower 8.5/16, ribs 1.3/16.
Entire appearance rather attractive, giving pleasureable ideas of strength and robustness. Workmanship extremely neat; scroll outstandingly noble; purfling quite splendid. Resonant tone which will be of fine quality when age has furnished its quota. The least satisfactory part is the manner of varnishing, an application of three thick coats instead of a larger number of thinner ones. Early instruments more after Strad in general contour, and have a wide distribution in Australia.
Prize winner
Inter: Col:

Imperial Joseph Model
W. H. Dow
Faciebat Anno 1917. No. 217

Exhibitions International

Worked in Mirecourt, 1872. Died 1931. Established a factory for violin making, and had several clever assistants.
Bought the “Chipot-Vuillaume” trade name after the premature death of that maker, and continued to export instruments labelled with that name. Usual transcripts of various standard models, and the familiar Mirecourt style. Neat Panormo copies, slightly under full size; the Maggini copies have the double-purfling. Pretty wood and nicely shaded reddish yellow spirit varnish.
Lutherie Artistique
Charles Drouin, Luthier
Mirecourt, 1891
No. 6
(initials C.D. in double circle)
Branded “DROUIN” under label.
Charles Drouin
à Mirecourt. anno 1898.
Excellent ’cellos in similar styles.

Worked in Mirecourt, 1850-1884. Another of the industrious and ingenious Frenchmen engaged in the above violin-making town. Superior copying, dexterity, anci excellent workmanship. Good selection of wood. Yellow varnish of ordinary transparency.
Etienne Drouin
à Mirecourt

Born 1898. Studied at Prague with Vavra and Lantner. Established at Turnov, 1925. Strad and Guarnerian modelling of almost perfect workmanship; complete artistry surrounds the scroll and sound-holes. Golden orange or golden red varnish showing the splendour of the wood.
F. X. Drozen
Wtvorill. P. 1949
V Turnove
(witll signature)

Worked in Mirecourt, 1745-1780, though branding his instruments as emanating from Paris. Shop sign “A la Ville de Padoue”.
Model generally very long and somewhat narrow with slight arching. Deep ribs, seemingly out of real proportion when viewed with entire structure. Large scroll which has frequently given rise to criticism from fastidious amateurs. Longdrawn sound-holes having a slight “tumbling-over” appearance. Incision in the centre of stem rather distorted. Symmetrical beauty entirely eliminated. Strong belly wood often with grain getting wider towards the edges, and maple of moderately handsome figure. Purfling finely thin with broad edging. Darkish yellow-brown varnish not always applied with uniform care. Tone never very strong or sweet, but passably agreeable. Instruments that have failed to make an indelible niche on the ladder of fame. Branded in block lettering.
Nicolaus Duchesne
A Paris
Name used today by Thibouville-Lamy for red brown violins.
Nicholas Duchene Virtuoso

Bow maker. Worked in Mirecourt, 1783-1790. Stamped “Nicolas Duchêne”.

Worked in Eisleben (Saxony), 1900-1930. Ordinary commercial products.

Born in Besancon, 1900. Worked for Caressa and Francais at Paris. Established in rue Moscow, 1932. Won gold medals. Repairer to the Conservatoire. Officier d’Academy, etc. Really superb replicas of a Guadagnini, Guarnerius, and Gagliano. Made special study of Cremonese and Venetian varnishes, and arrived at a most beautifully transparent one of his own concoction.
Andre Dugad
Luthier d’Art
an 19. . No.
(with AD circledParis)
Also branded “André Dugad Paris”.

Worked in London, 1750-1780. Fairly prolific maker of instruments, many of them being really fine-toned. A great number bearing his name are falsely attributed to him, and these (generally of a cheap and meretricious order) have lowered his reputation. If his well-known authenticated instruments were the only ones in use, he would be regarded as one of the best, if not the finest, of our old native makers. Perhaps more than any other the name of Duke has been subjected to wholesale forgery. At one time nearly every wretchedly made nondescript fiddle was a counterfeit Duke. German factory fiddles, in thousands, have the name branded or placed in a kind of sealing wax impression. There are plentiful genuine Dukes and the fortunate possessors of well preserved specimens rightly prize them, particularly American connoisseurs and violinists. He exercised a powerful influence, not only on contemporaries, but on those who immediately followed. His work, though not of the genius order, shows he possessed no small amount of imagination. Had great fame in and about 1752 because he made the best imitations of the Stainer model, and that model was then the ruling idol. Later he largely restricted himself to a modified Amati model, but very occasionally ventured on the long Strad. Experts have always had considerable diversity of opinion relative to which model should be placed on the higher plane. Some claim superiority for the Stainer, others for the Amati, and one or two give preference for the few and scarce Stradivarius modelling.
Stainer models have an Italian type of scroll, turn of the volute being somewhat similar to the procedure of the early Amatese. Except for this, his instruments are generally excellent replicas of the smaller Stainer characteristics, though some connoisseurs frequently pronounce the arching to be overdone. Amati imitations are certainly tinged with Tyrolese character, the sound-holes in particular differing but slightly from those he gives to the Stainer modelling. General contour of the two models is prominent arching with emphasised longitudinal proportions rather than of width. Scrolls always well worked, grooves at the back being gracefully and harmoniously cut out, and not too deeply. Edges superbly curved, this is more particularly observed at the back than at the front as the latter, being of softer wood also meets with more severe contact and usage. Ribs never deep. Margins small all round the outline. Sound-holes perhaps rather small, but never deviate from acceptable prettiness, circles of upper turns smaller than the lower ones - edges of the wings cut square. The wood always acoustically excellent, material for the backs frequently without flame, but sometimes the ribs are of rather pretty material, though this is often hidden by the varnish. This varnish is mostly of a fairly soft red brown shade, not splendidly transparent and having but a modicum of fire in its depths. Sometimes used a dull brown preparation of poor surface, which obscures the fibres of the wood. Also a few specimens varnished in a kind of dark yellow. There are two outstanding examples of his belonging to the long Stradivarius model. One dated 1770 from Gloucester Place, Holborn (written label), had the high figure of £50 attached to it, and was reputed to be quite unique in structure. The other, dated 1768, was reported on by Towry Piper in the “Strad Magazine” and gave the following measurements: body length, 14-1/4 inches; upper bouts, 6.3/16 full; lower, 7-7/8; ribs, 1.3/16 inches bare to full. Violas not always of the full size invariably required by professional players. The few that have these required proportions are very rich in tone. Medium arching of fine graduation. Frequently one-piece backs. He did however make many violas of shorter length and greater width, which are neither attractive-looking or of much consequence tonally. His original aim was for deep tone, but his calculations went astray though this is somewhat compensated for by an additional brightness. ’Cellos very rare. Generally of long pattern, greatly arched, yellow varnish, frequently too thin in the wood. Tone very mellow but lacks power and brilliance. It is said that now and then, Duke inserted Amati and Stradivarius labels in his instruments. £85 (1959).
Richaid Duke
Londini. fecit 1760
Richd. Duke
Lonclini. 17. .
(both written)
Richard Duke, Maker
Holborn, London. Anno 1768
(generally written but sometimes printed)
Richard Duke, Maker
near opposite
Great Turn-Stile
Holborn. London
Many examples branded or stamped “Duke, London” under the button on back. Sometimes “Duke” only, but this generally applies to the forgeries.

Son and pupil of the preceding, carried on his business 1780. Worked in London, 1768-1790.Used a similar brand to that of father - seldom labelled his instruments. Had very little ability and lost the patronage of the clientele his father had won. Finally (in order to make a living) he went from one shop to another hawking his own and other instruments, disposing of them for any sum he could wheedle out of the dealers. £60, 1959.
Duke, Junr.
London 1771
(also branded)

Worked at Aberdeen, 1739-1779. Very high arching, ordinary workmanship and tone.
Robert Duncan. Maker.
Aberdeen, 1775.

Born in Paris, 1904. Pupil of Vatelot and Brugère. Specialised in Quartets - Italian models. Reddish orange varnish.
Georges année
Dupuy 19
à Paris 50 rue de Rome
(monogram in centre)
georges-Louis dupuy
à paris 4e.rue demours
(signature on right)
Branded under tail-pin.

Born 1871. Died 1922. Bows made at Markneukirchen.
Chocolate-coloured round sticks, rather heavily heeled. Not first-class workmanship. Stamed “Otto Durrschinidt”.

Born 1856. Died 1909. lnstructive career traced and completed by his father Jan Baptista, who paved the way by entrusting him with the repairing of the many fine instruments continually coming into his workshop. Worked in Vienna, Strasbourg, and several years at Paris with Silvestre. Finally established at Prague, where his name was soon hailed as that of a man who had drawn together all the boundaries of physical and scientific facts of his predecessors. In short, a Bohemian Stradivari, who, if he were not encompassing the wonderful harmony of proportion of the Cremonese genius, had at least extracted and defined the elements of all mathematical problems by producing instruments perfect in shape and as perfect in tone when the necessary age has ripened it. Admirably developed modelling, some Stradivarian, others Guarnerian, with a slight reminder of Lupot all over. No part of workmanship can be criticised. Varnish has fine texture, generally of darkish red colour, but a few orange. Carefully ascertained the acoustical properties of the woods, as well as their beauty, before cutting, etc. Stradivarius modelled ’cellos also finely built. Body length 29-7/8 inches. Particularly handsome scrolls, sometimes with black tipped edges. Orange tinted varnish evenly applied. Regarded as the finest connoisseur and expert in his country. Made great efforts to propagate in other countries, the productions of his countrymen. £100, 1959.
Carolus Bor: Dvorák
fecit Prague Anno 1885

Born in Unhost 1825. Died 1890. Apprenticed to Kulik. Worked in Pesth and Vienna before finally settling at Prague. Mainly modelled on Stradivarian lines, occasionally Guarnerian though the outline is slightly narrower. Neat, correct workmanship. Sound-holes of the smaller Stradivarian type. Experimented considerably with varnishes, but failed to arrive at anything astonishingly successful. On some instruments the tint is very glaring. Those having a dark reddish brown shade of good texture are preferable. Tone rather shrill in the higher register, and power rather inadequate to the requirements of today. Produced many guitars now valued by collectors.
Joh: Bapt: Dworák
Geigen und Guitarenmacher. Prag.
J. B. Dvorák
fecit Pragae. 1880
(decorative border)

Born in Aberdeenshire, 1878. Resident in Drumduan Forres (Morayshire), 1924. Produced first instrument in 1901. Built about 40 violins and several ’cellos. Heart and soul in complete sympathy with the charm of the Stradivarian model, absolutely no exaggeration in his delineation of the outline and graduations. Workmanship perfect down to the minutest detail, positively a delight to see. Scroll and sound-holes supremely conceived. Purfling faultless. Inside details beautifully finished. Peculiar properties of various woods, even to the sound-post, carefully ascertained. Orange brown shade of oil varnish applied as only as artistic mind can foresee. Occasionally tried a reddish shade. Instruments that must surely have a high and permanent place in the future. Dyker, in travelling the road of scientific exactitude, also kept in view that elusive thing known as tonal quality, which is as resonant and clear as anything heard, and is already of that peculiar quality which rapidly develops under the stimulus of the bow.
Made by
George Dyker
1919. Forres

Born in Leeds, 1884. Had a predeliction for exploiting with edged tools from his 8th year. Completed his already skilful manipulation of wood-carving, etc., with invaluable experiences under the watchful eye of Paul Bailly. Produced 12 splendidly constructed instruments before reaching his fourteenth year. Subsequently built many exactly corresponding Cremonese and other Italian models.
Made by
George L. Dykes
Leeds. pupil of Paul Bailly
(pupil of Jean Baptiste Vuillaume of Paris)
No. 14
Sometimes with signature and date.