FABIANI, ANTONIO
Born 1898. Violinist. Won diplomas at Rome. Pupil in violin construction of Bisiach at Milan, and Sacconi. Established at Ascoli Piceno, 1930. Also a Professor at the local Institute of Music. Stradivarian modelling, splendid design, workmanship and varnish. £90, 1959.
------------------------------------------
Antonius Fabiani
sub Titulo S. S. Ceciliae et Joseph
fecit Ascoli in Piceno
N. Anno D. 192-
------------------------------------------

FABRICATORE, GENNARO (1)
Son and pupil of Giovanni Battista. Worked in Naples, 1790-1832. Lutes, guitars and mandolines, plainly show that he always worked under the spirit of the beautiful; instruments deserving high praise. Turned his attention to the production of violins and ’cellos after the year 1815. Workmanship rises to considerable heights in point of neatness. Outline, arching, sound-holes, and scroll very attractive. Varnish of golden red-brown shade.
----------------------------------
Gennaro Fabricatore
Anno 1816. Napoli
Strada S. Giacomo No. 42.
----------------------------------
(large, very decorative copper-plate lettering)
Other labels occasionally of different address. £250 to £300, 1959.

FABRICATORE, GENNARO (2)
Son and pupil of preceding. Worked in Naples 1820-1843. Principally a maker of guitars with deep ribs and pretty ornamentation on the front. Also produced a few violins and violas - Gagliano style.
----------------------------
Gennaro Fabricatore
anno 1826
Strada Toledo. Napoli
----------------------------

FABRIS, LUIGI
Worked in Venice, 1853-1879. Modelling either that of a Stradivarius or Guarnerius - both splendidly conceived. Several connoisseurs have given unfavourable opinions regarding the tonal qualities, but, with all diffidence and deference, we suggest that their depreciation is entirely misplaced. Good specimens realised £50 in 1925. Plenty of vitality in the tone, and its mellowness is rapidly becoming something to be appreciated. Very satisfactory, fairly rich orange red varnish, sometimes of a brownish tinge. Excellent table wood, nicely flamed maple. Scroll and sound-holes in harmony with the graceful outline. Also several ’cellos generally esteemed. £85, 1959.
--------------------------
Luigi Fabris fecit
Venezia l’anno 1861
--------------------------
(decorative circle)
-----------------------------------------
Luigi Fabris fecit
Venezia Anno 1873
Premiato con medaglia d’argento
all’ Esposizione di Treviso, 1872
-----------------------------------------

FAGNOLA, ANNIBALE
Established at Turin, 1890. Died 1939. Had no master for apprenticeship other than the assiduous studying of old violins. Thirst for knowledge came early, and he gathered much before commencing his work. Specialised in wonderfully imitating the productions of Pressenda - so well imitated as to cause experts to momentarily hesitate before giving a guarantee as to the true authorship. Beautiful red varnish generously applied, every little detail of workmanship magnificently well finished. Tone of exceptional penetrating quality with considerable mellowness. Astonishing replicas of Rocca and J. B. Guadagnini, and as he entirely originated them upon principles founded on the laws of his two predecessors, we get that brilliance of tone for which the soloist is always seeking. Command of design also created within him, the natural ambition of modelling some violins that have an originality all his own. These evince every genuine quality of tone and workmanship. In addition to the red varnish he used an amply applied yellow of soft texture. Some scrolls have dark edging.
----------------------
Annibule Fagnola
fece Turino 1902
----------------------
---------------------------------
Hannibal Fagnola, fecit
Taurini anno Domini 1904
---------------------------------
(initials H.F.T. in heart shaped design)
In the imitated instruments his own label is placed next to a facsimile of the label of the maker he copied. Inside, will be found his name (twice), and date written in ink. £175, 1959.

FALISSE, AUGUSTE
Born in Liège, 1883. Apprenticed to Delinet at Mirecourt. Passed eighteen months in Paris with Silvestre and Maucotel, also worked with Mougenot in Brussels. Established own workshop at Ixelles-Brussels, 1905. Assisted by his son, 1912. Stradivarian and Guarnerian modelling, with imitative varnishing of each. Everything admirably set forth. Instruments that take their place legitimately within the range of the highest art. Scroll is the embodiment of grace and strength. Sound-holes and purfirng arrest the attention and completely satisfy. Some instruments varnished with the splendid preparations of Angell of Bristol - a delightful chestnut red or golden brown. Clear tonal quality. Catalogued at £30, ’cellos at £60 in 1930. Constructed violins in accordance with the new acoustical principles of a Parisian physician named Dr. Chenantais. Had a brilliant and prompt victory giving much joy to both maker and scientist at a Violin Competition held at Paris, 1912. Adjudicated first prize with 423 points, a Stradivarius coming in third with 401 points, and other Italian instruments, less. Each violin had the same solo played on it and the performer was not in view of the auditors.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Vainqueur du Goncours International de Violon - Paris 1912
11er sur 42 concurrents, tant anciens que modernes
Auguste Falisse
Luthier du Conservatoire Royal de Bruxelles
Anno. . . . 19. .
------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------
Concours de
Paris 1912

Aug. Falisse
Luthier
Bruxelles
-----------------
(bears the design of a violin lying on two sheets of paper, with sprig of a plant resting on the strings)
Some instruments have:
----------------------------------------
Auguste Falisse
Imported by Boosey & Hawkes
Sole London Agents
----------------------------------------
£85, 1959.

FARLEY, CHARLES EMERY
Born in Concord (New Hampshire), 1846. Son and pupil of Nathan Farley, Junr. Had a good musical education, and played the violin, organ, and piano quite capably. Gained experience with various local makers. Worked at father’s piano establishment in New Boston. Produced first violin 1883. Incessant activity up to the year of his death, 1927, and the net result was the grand total of 450 instruments - every part absolutely his own handiwork. Early-dated instruments modelled in the familiar way after Stradivari, Guarnerius and Amati. Conceived an original model, 1900, which he subsequently did not relinquish in favour of any other. This combination of Strad-Amati principles brought him better results than he had previously enjoyed. Arching, sound-holes, purfling, and scroll all have a slight divergence towards originality. Rather partial to the maple and spruce found in California. Did not shape the bellies and backs merely by rule and calliper, or adhere to the general thicknessing of the wood; but found out the sound of each and worked to get them completely harmonious. Paid considerable attention to the selection of wood for sound-post, and very critical in the matter of thickness or thinness according with the table and back. Many of the early dated instruments are somewhat thin in the plates, but after 1900, he built more substantially. Never used anything but amber varnish, and that always of his own preparation. An untiring experimentalist in this particular field. Fortunate in finding an old recipe which had been in the family for over a hundred years. Tried this and that formulae, but never satisfied, went on trying for the long period of 45 years before he completely realised what he was seeking, that was to obtain a soft varnish having the appearance and tonal-giving qualities of the old Cremona varnish. This is a pure amber varnish of linseed oil and turpentine, no added colouring matter whatsoever, and no dryer. Claimed by these means to produce crimson and brownish red shades which will not get hard or brittle with age, but will eventually become darker. Took three days to completely dry providing those days had several hours of sunshine. Tint very much like the skin of an apple, and very elastic. Had great faith in gum-amber, but only when rightly used. Later instruments have a remarkably clear tone. Wrote a Violin Method for beginners (published at his own cost). Died at Everett (Mass.), 1927 at the age of 81.
-----------------------------------
Chas. E. Farley
1908. Boston, Mass. U.S.A.
-----------------------------------
On the right, is a picture of the maker - on the left, a coat-of-arms with the latin text “Virtue duce comite fortuna”.

FAROTTI, CELESTE
Born 1864. Worked in Milan, 1890. Exhibition medals gained at Milan, 1908; Turin, 1911, and San Francisco, 1915. Won first prizes at the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Rome, Philharmonic Academy, Bologna, and the National Competition of Violin Makers, 1917. Died 1928. Early years employed in copying such instruments as came within his reach. In these desultory (though not aimless studies), he laid the foundation of future success. Stradivarian modelling completely showing his theoretical knowledge. Scroll and sound-holes well proportioned (the latter sometimes seem slightly over-large). Workmanship never tinged with indifference. Often beautiful one-piece backs. Oil varnish of orange or red-brown shades - the latter thickly applied. Also maker of artists’ bows.
--------------------------------------
Farotti Geleste
da San Germano di Casale
Fece in Milano nell’ anno 1901
--------------------------------------
(“C. Farotti” autographed, or full signature. Arms-of-Milan on one side, a flower on the other).
----------------
Fatto Farotti
Milano 1918
----------------
-----------------------------
Farotti Celestes
di S, Germano di Casal
Fece
in Milano il - 1907
-----------------------------
---------------------------------------------
Farotti Celestes a Sancto Germano
Casalenso Mediolani fecit anno 1920
---------------------------------------------
(with signature and F C S P circled)

FAROTTI (FAROTTO), SALVATORE
Born 1875. Brother of Celeste. Worked in Milan, 1900. Assisted by son Celestino (born 1905). Pupil of Uncle. Superb copies of a Strad, Rocca, and Pressenda.
------------------------------------
Farotto Celestino
allievo della zio Celeste fece
in Milano l’anno, 1927
-----------------------------------
(with signature)

FENDT, BERNHARD
Born in Innsbrück, in the Tyrol, 1776. Nephew and pupil of Francois Fent of Paris, with whom he went to live in his 7th year. Came to London, 1798, and worked eleven years with Thomas Dodd, having J. F. Lott on the next bench. Employed by John Betts, 1800. Died in Aylesbury Street, Clerkenwell, 1832, and was buried in Clerkenwell Churchyard. Though greatly employing the Strad model, his instruments have some individuality. All are quite refined. Every detail highly finished. Scroll and sound-holes well carved, purfling finely carried out. Choice of wood coincides with the art-workmanship; belly wood of absolute straight grain, handsome flamed maple for the backs. Tone of exquisite quality, rather Cremonese in the opinion of some. Orange brown shade of varnish, quite beautiful.
Catalogued at £50 (1925) and singularly cheap. Many instruments were made for Dodd, and this maker applied his special varnish and inserted his label. Nearly all the Amati models of John Betts owe their creation of fine contour to the ingenuity of Fendt. Double-basses are eagerly snapped up by players and connoisseurs. Of glorious proportions and varnish. Remarkable graduation of the plates has undoubtedly had its fullest allotment in the verdant field of tone - a tone quite Italian in quality. £80, 1959.

FENDT, BERNHARD SIMON
Eldest son of Bernhard. Born in London, 1800. Worked under father at Bett’s establishment until 1823. Partner with Farn (a dealer in old violins) in Lombard Street. Started a business with George Purdy under the name of Purdy and Fendt, in Finch Street, 1832, had a branch establishment in the Haymarket, 1843, and finally at 74 Dean Street, Soho. Died in Smith Street, Brompton, 1852. One of the cleverest imitators of any country or period. Produced hundreds of Guarnerius replicas (his principal prototype) and many Strad models. Reproductions pure and simple, even to the label, but perfect of their kind, so perfect as to have subsequently deceived the keenest experts. Finer modelling cannot be conceived and his rapidity and cleverness in the workmanship is in every respect equal to the felicity of the design. Every resource of skill lay within his hands. Thicknessing of the plates based on the ideas of the old Cremona makers. Allegiance to the old scrolls also expressed with unshaken fidelity - fluting most effective. Spacious margins add to the grandeur of the elegant arching and outline. Purfling altogether of that standard attained by the Cremona makers. Finely full sides, and of handsome material. Never varying excellence of wood. Shades and texture of varnish equally resplendent, and his method of application, degrees of thickness, equality of surfacing etc., a perfect triumph of skill. Golden and deep orange tints of the Italians most luxuriously reproduced, also a transparent bright red. Tone of all-round richness, Italian quality, of very noticeable depth on the lower strings, and particularly brilliant in the higher register, the whole topped by an astonishing clearness. He has been termed the Prince of counterfeiters, and adversely criticised for hiding his great talent under unscrupulous labelling and passing them off as genuine Cremonas. But how do we know his exact circumstances? How can we rightly know his views on the matter? What a story he could no doubt tell relating to the gullibility of the public, and how many of its various members are rather prone to rush in and be deceived! However, there were times when he did not resist the impulse of inscribing his own name on his wonderful work, and he must have felt very proud of viewing it, as no doubt he was quite aware of his consummate skill, and the tone he heard from these violins when played upon from time to time by the many players who went to his shop, must have entranced his senses and filled his dreams with visions of Cremona fame.
Guarnerius modelled violas are possibly unsurpassed in tonal quality and appearance. Exhibited a fine quartet of instruments in Hyde Park, 1851, when the Crystal Palace was built for the International Exhibition. Measurements of the ’cello: body length, 29.15/16 inches; upper bouts, 13.10/16; middle, 9.8/16; lower, 17.9/16. Strad model, superb workmanship, most beautifully shaped sound-holes having a really fine sweep; brownish red varnish with deep orange undercoat. Several double-basses received ample justice at his hands, highly valued for their tonal quality (a particularly flexible one). Generally built on the light side but with no excessive thinning of the wood. Impossible to praise too highly the ingenuity displayed in the outline and workmanship of the Gasparo-da-Salo-like instruments. The varnish too (in all respects) a great achievement. Finally, many Guarnerian modelled violins with a glaring red varnish of a hard nature, and more or less indifferent workmanship, have been attributed to Fendt by certain dealers, but such opinions are not conclusive.
-----------------------------
Bernard S. Fendt Junr.
1831
-----------------------------
-------------------
Bernard Fendt
London 1851
-------------------
It will be noted that he omitted the “h” in Bernard. Other labels give name in full “Bernhard Simeon Fendt”. £125, 1959. Cellos, £l50.

FENT, FRANCOIS
Born in Schwaz (Tyrol). Worked at Innsbrück. Said to be Uncle and instructor of Bernhard Fendt. Ultimately decided to make Paris his headquarters, and worked there from 1760-1791. Frenchified his name by omitting the “d”. An artist of great ingenuity, a man who could delineate the Stradivarius model more gracefully than any maker of French nationality (and in stating this, we are not forgetting there was a Lupot), but also one who occasionally neglected his genius, forsook the proper path in which he should have trodden, and wandered into the attractive labyrinth of generally rosy prospects where a quick and abundant return for his labour was to be found. During these periods, he became singularly careless, hurried his workmanship, and was temporarily a mere empiric in the art which nature had intended him to pursue conscientiously, altogether a deadening influence having the sole effect of affording posterity improper ideas of his actual abilities. The instruments in which he took a personal pride are wonderful achievements in the matter of contour, and fully deserve the high praise assigned to them by all the leading experts. Ribs finely full, consequently small margins as the model is never over-broad. Scroll never large or masculine, but grandly shaped, and perfectly harmonious with entire structure. Sound-holes endowed with similar gracefulness, though sometimes slightly more open than those of a Stradivarius. Usually narrow purfling, done with delightful steadiness of hand. Often belly wood of the most delicate nature, and of very fine grain, but unfortunately often worm-eaten today. Generally one-piece backs cut on the quarter, and always of handsome curly maple. Ribs of same material. Body length seldom under 14 inches; varnish (owing to oxidation), frequently quite dark, but originally of a rich red-brown or lustrous orange tint. Tonal quality singularly of Italian character, having that fine full sonority which can be subjugated at the player’s will into a sweetness pervading every niche of a large hall. A violinist of the finest sensibilities, if he is lucky enough to meet with a well-preserved Fent violin, and one on which the varnish has lost little of its original colour and elasticity will surely feel it bringing forth something equal with real beauty of tone, if not in power, with any Lupot specimen, something easily emerging with clear responsiveness under undulating bow strokes, something not requiring that perpetual propelling of energy, which many French violins demand. Occasionally these instruments are labelled Lupot, and passed off as such. In fact, one was once sold as a Stradivarius, fully guaranteed (though not honestly), by a leading expert. French violinists frequently rave about them, but in England they somehow have failed to meet with the recognition their tonal qualities assuredly deserve. Perhaps the continual darkening of the varnish, and the worm-eaten bellies, are the causes of this neglect. Usually catalogued at £50 (1925) and 300 to 800 dollars in America. Also produced ideally toned violas, and a few ’cellos. £80, 1959.
--------------------------------------
fait par fent
Mtre luthier Montmartre
près de la rue du Mail à Paris.
Deutscher
--------------------------------------
(written, last line giving the information that he was German)
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Fait par Fent
Maître Lutier, rue Montmartre
Cul-de-sac Saint Pietre, à Paris
---------------------------------------
(printed, with a gorgeously flowered decorative border)
Seldom dated his work. Three are known, 1774, 1785 and 1790.

FERRIER, WILLIAM
Born 1849. Photographer in Dundee, 1880. Made 30 violins, long model, thinly wooded with yellow varnish of good texture. Instruments of attractive appearance, but with unsatisfactory tone.
---------------------
W. Ferrier
Dundee. No. 18
---------------------
(lithographed on mauve paper with photo of maker)

FERRONI, FERANDINO
Born 1868. Pupil of Zorzi. Worked in Florence. Produced 110 violins, 12 violas, 6 ’cellos. Died 1949.
-------------------
F. Ferroni
Firenze. 1926
-------------------
(photo of maker on left)

FÉTIQUE, CHARLES
Born 1863. Pupil of Paul Bailly. Worked for the Thibouville-Lamy and Laberté firms at Mirecourt. Many well made instruments bear his signature.

FÉTIQUE, JULES
Born 1875. Brother of Victor. Pupil of E. Miguel. Worked for Bazin, Sartory, and Caressa. Established own premises at Paris, 1934. Won several diplomas. Magnificent bows, almost equal to those of Victor.

FÉTIQUE, MARCEL
Born 1899. Son and successor of Victor. Similar refined workmanship to that of father.

FÉTIQUE, VICTOR
Born at Mirecourt, 1872. Son of Charles. Apprenticed to Fournier-Maline, Ausson, and Miguel. Worked for Bazin, also Caressa and Français at Paris, 1901. Established own premises in the French metropolis, 1913. Title of “Greatest archetier in France” conferred on him at the Paris Exhibition, 1927. Died 1933. Produced 14 different models, some being exact reproductions of the Tourte, Lupot, Voirin, etc. Also an original design having an elliptical stick with canted sides affording the maximum of resistance and elasticity. Every bow a complete work of art. Stamped “Vtor Fétique à Paris”. Gained medals at Brussels, Barcelona, London and Livorno. £35, 1959.

FEYZEAU
Worked at Bordeaux, 1740-1795. Generally of small pattern, altogether interesting in the rather vaulted arching. Some of the later dated instruments are flatter and larger. Whole contour very attractive. Corners particularly elegant, thoroughly well finished. Scroll and sound-holes gracefully designed. Generally a weak spirit varnish of light-brown shade, giving a commonplace aspect to the instrument. Others have a yellowish shade of better transparency and texture. Some (dated before 1760) usually dark-brown in colour. Tonal quality of artificial power - the sort of tone sounding loud under the ear of the player, but never carrying far, also not much mellowness. Often good table-wood, and handsome backs. £25 (1930). Also produced lyres and 5-stringed viols.
---------------
Feyzeau
à Bordeaux
1773
---------------

FICHTL, JOHANN ULRICH
Worked at Mittenwald, 1750-1769. Instruments bearing no lack of ingenuity. Quite attractive in the semi-Amatese outline - his predominating style, and of rather well developed proportions particularly across the upper bouts. Nice medium arching. Edges thinly rounded and neatly done. Perfectly posed scroll, quite superior in style to anything his local contemporaries ever conceived. Careful, almost masterly, sound-holes. Purfling neat. Plentifully wooded with close grained (usually) spruce, and small flame curly maple. Orange-yellow varnish, occasionally used a reddish brown, effectively applied with Italian-like texture. Tone very responsive and particularly equal in the lower and higher registers. £35 (1930). £90 (1959).
-----------------------------
Johann Ulrich Fichtl, in
Mittenwald. An. 1763
-----------------------------
(decorative border)
Name sometimes given as “Fichel”, “Fickel”, and “Fichts”.

FICKER, CHRISTIAN SAMUEL
Born 1766. Died 1819. Worked at Markneukirchen. Made violins and violas. Work of little consequence, varnish hard and dull. Branded “C.S.F.”

FICKER, JOHANN CHRISTIAN (1)
Worked at Markneukirchen, 1690-1726. Made many well-modelled instruments. Plentiful brown varnish. Also produced violins of guitar form, ultra grotesque affairs, altogether beyohd the bounds of art. Several double-basses of fine tone came from his workshop. Generally flat backs, without violin shaped corners.
------------------------------------
J. Chr. Ficker
Geigenmacher in Neukirchen
1693
------------------------------------
Branded “I.C.F.”

FICKER, JOHANN CHRISTIAN (2)
Born 1720. Died 1772. Worked at Markneukirchen. Son and pupil of Johann Caspar. Although dated as from Cremona, his instruments have the typical Tyrolese appearance. Medium size model of rather high arching. Contour generally very ordinary-looking. Nearly always good acoustical wood; frequently one-piece backs of handsome flame. Brownish red varnish, occasionally a dark yellow shade also. Tone of that uscful kind for amateurs in quarter playing, the lower register being especially mellow. £30. Violas usually 13-7/8 inches in string length. Also made several neatly worked viols.
----------------------------------------
Johann Christian Ficker
Prove violino in Cremona, 1757
----------------------------------------
(sometimes written)
---------------------------------
Johann Christian Ficker
probe violin fecit Cremona
---------------------------------
Branded “I.C.F.” inside, with stars between the letters. Sometimes used father’s label, but omitted the date.

FICKER, JOHANN CHRISTIAN (3)
Born 1758. Died 1822. Son of (2). Worked at Markneukirchen. Model sometimes highly arched; others of medium arching having an outline rather reminiscent of Amati. Being originally intended as ordinary specimens of Tyrolese work to be sold at a small figure, the workmanship is astonishingly excellent of its class. There is a distinctive rigidity about the straightish sound-holes which is not perhaps yery pretty. Imparted more ingenuity in the really attractive scroll with its prominent boss and fine cutting. Margins usually very narrow. Not very successful with the hard, glassy, chestnut brown varnish, or the occasional orange tint. Wood fairly well chosen. Quality of tone rather sweet, but often very thin. Instruments date from 1776.
----------------------------------------------------
Johann Christian Ficker
Lauden und Geigenmacher in Neukirchen
bey Adorf. 1809
----------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------
Johann Christian Ficker
probe violino corr. Cremona
------------------------------------
Though using the name of Cremona, he never worked there.

FICKER, JOHANN GOTTLOB (1)
Born 1744. Died 1832. Worked at Markneukirchen. Though prone to the habit of swift production, his workmanship never falls below that kind of refined spirituality inherent in all men of natural aptitude in their art. Some violins look very Stainerish except that the arching is less bulgy; but usually he modelled after Stradivarius or Amati outlines, though never altered the medium-high arching, thus avoiding the commonplace elements of much German work. Though he offers some suggestiveness of Italian character (as well as inscribing labels to make believe he worked at Cremona), there is always something present in his work which refuses to be quite relevant to the Cremona school. Shape and pose of scroll very artistic. Original treatment of purfling. The chamfer Commences directly at the purfling, and on the opposite side, he rounded off the edge, making it fall rapidly away from the purfling, so that this in its whole extent, formed the highest point of the edge. Likewise gifted in cutting the sound-holes neatly, though not perhaps of ideal grace. Table-wood generally of fine grain, sometimes of one piece when the back is of two pieces. Backs always of prettily figured material. Golden brown varnish, occasionally a shade darker on the front and showing a reddish tinge. Tonal quality of reasonable power with considerable mellowness and warmth. £35 (1932). £85 (1959).
----------------------------------------------
Johann Gottlob Ficker Violino
correspontent Romani Cremona 1793
----------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------
Johann Gottlob Ficker probe violino
cor-Respont Romani Cremona 1786
---------------------------------------------
Often in wavering caligraphy. Also branded “I.G.F.” (with a little star between each letter) on the back inside.

FICKER, JOHANN GOTTLOB (2)
Born 1778. Died 1827. Son and pupil of (1). Made exact replicas of father’s instruments, both Stainerish and Italianised. So marked is the similarity that most people are unable to tell one from the other. Used a similar brand.
----------------------------
Johann Gottlob Ficker
in Neukirchen, 1804
----------------------------

FILANO, LUIGI
Worked at Naples, 1820-1859. Nicely conceived modelling with the variety and beauty of the Gagliano school. Compare his instruments with any other Italian maker of the same period, and none will stand the test better. £40 (1930).
He had the faculty for intermingling light and shade in his warm yellow varnish. Neat workmanship abundantly evident; scroll, sound-holes and purfling. Tonal quality clear and fresh. Equal skill exhibited on his guitars and mandolines.
-----------------------
Luigi Filano
Napoli Anno 1832
Strada Speranzella
Nmo 110
-----------------------
(beautifully scrolled, bearing a classical figure of lady reclining)
£90, 1959.

FINKEL, S.
Born 1927. Pupil of Weidhass. Worked at Königsberg (Prussia). Bows which splendidly reflect the traits of the French and German notabilities. Stamped “Siegfried Finkel”.

FIORINI, CARLO
Worked at Turin, 1862-1875. Specialised in the production of ’cellos. Very flat arching and outline not ideally conceived. Plates frequently too thin, with a long depression above the bass bar which is too shallow. Light reddish varnish.
----------------------
Carlo Fiorini fece
Torinio 1868
----------------------
Branded “C.F.” on the button.

FIORINI, GIUSEPPE
Born at Bazzano (Italy), 1861. Son and pupil of Raffaele. Inherited parent’s cultivated propensities in arts and sciences. Built first instrument at the age of 16 years. Worked at Bologna, 1877-1888. Went to Munich and established the Firm “Rieger and Fiorini” 1889-1914; went to Zurich owing to the war, 1915; returned to native country 1923, and settled at Rome 1923. Honoured with a knighthood (Cavaliere), 1927. Died at Munich, 1934. Had many pupils subsequently prominent in Bavaria and Italy, and enjoyed personal friendship of Royalty, opulent patrons of art, and eminent virtuosi in Italy, France, Germany, and Russia. One of the founders of the German Violin-makers’ Society, and occupied the position of President for several years. Contributed controversial articles to journals which exhibited all possible erudition coupled with acute reasoning powers. Incessantly examined the violins of the immortal Stradivari, had opportunities of personally handling the diagrams and tools used by that wondrous creator, humbly but hopefully delved into the secrets and came out of the labyrinth into the sunshine of enlightenment. Built 500 violins, 10 violas, and 10 ’cellos up to year 1926. Some specimens (violins) have realised £60 (1927). Recipient of the highest medals at Exhibitions in Europe and America. Modelling always in the Stradivarian style, but with an individuality not to be merely exact replicas. No inaccuracies or fanciful extravagancies whatsoever either exterior or interior. Exquisite contour which affords a perfect harmonisation of curvature. Artistry infallibly guided his hand in the execution of scrolls and sound-holes. Finely transparent reddish and golden varnishes, the whole applied skilfully.
---------------------
Giuseppe Fiorini
München. 1895
---------------------
---------------------------------
Fiorini Giuseppe
fece in Bologna anno 188-
op 29
---------------------------------
-------------------------------
Giuseppe Fiorini
da Bologna
fece in Zurigo anno 1918
-------------------------------
-------------------------------
Giuseppe Fiorini
da Bologna
fece in Roma anno 1925
-------------------------------
Each with “m p” written on the left. Also branded “G. Fiorini” under tailpiece. Last violin numbered 606. £150 (1959).

FIORINI, PAOLO
No maker of this name resident at Turin. Fantasy name invented for “commercial” violins solely imported by Beare & Son, of London. Probably emanating from Mirecourt. Happy results of skilled craftsmanship. Amatese-Strad modelling pleasingly revealed. One-piece backs sometimes of a lovely wavy-figure. Carefully selected and well matured belly wood. Golden, red-brown varnish, finished “a la Cremona”. Thicknesses of plates especially attended to. Good tonal quality. £12.
----------------------------------
Modele
Paolo Fiorini, Taurini
B&S L faciebat anno 1923
----------------------------------

FIORINI, RAFFAELE
Born at Pianoro (Italy), 1828. Parents removed to Bazzano, where in his childhood he became interested in a brother of Tadolini (violin maker) who made primitive instruments for amusement. Considerable ingenuity in violin structure made its appearance before his 16th year. Subsequent years (until 1867) were spent in other industrial pursuits. Went to Bologna, 1867, and devoted himself wholly and seriously to violin making, ultimately opening premises in the Palazzo Pepoli. Died 1898. Connoisseurs who have compared his productions with others of the Bolognese school have not failed to state they are as accurate and faithful to the Cremona as any. Body length 14 inches. Nor is this the only praise, for he has succeeded in transplanting a purity of tone which closely follows the grand maturity of the old Cremonese. Various shades of varnish but generally a deep red. Produced several violas; body length 16-1/2 inches. Also ’cellos of superior excellence.

FISCHER
Bow-maker at Brambach (Bohemia). Stamped “Fischer -B”.

FISCHER, CARL
Worked at Schönbach, 1890-1916. Specialised in ’cellos. Careful workmanship, attractively varnished.
------------------------
Carl Fischer
Mulzgasse No. 49
Schönbach
------------------------

FISCHER, CARL
Worked at Bremen, 1890. Average workmanship. Branded.

FISCHER, ZACHARIAS
Born at Würzburg (Bavaria), 1730. Worked there all his life. Died 1812. Best instruments belong to the period 1770-1780 - particularly for tone. Incessantly studied outline and arching, making repeated divergencies from former attempts. Those most esteemed by amateurs, and sometimes highly extolled by experts, are generally Amatese-Klotz style. Modelling effective (though the arching is rather high), and exhibits the usual skilful manipulation of a conscientious and enthusiastic maker. Beautifully designed sound-holes recall Amati. Scroll statuesque and neatly accomplished. Excelled in steady purfling. Occasionally fancy inlay of a zig-zag design. Edges and corners admirably finished. Instruments modelled on Stainer principles do not, and never will retain a permanent position in the estimation of connoisseurs and players except on the lowest steps of the ladder. All violins have well marked wood. Red-brown varnish becoming deeper tinted by the hand of time. Tonal quality of the Amatese-Klotz is fairly clear but not sonorously full - that of the Stainer altogether cloudy and weak. The former catalogued at £40, the latter at £15. One especially fine specimen dated 1790, fetched 300 dollars. Announced (in 1786), a new method by which, so he claimed, instruments could be made to equal those of Stradivari and Stainer. This process was only the often tried and futile oven-heating of the wood with the subsequent mixture of injurious chemicals. Result - whatever tone was originally there would gradually evaporate into something weak and hollow, and if it had any brilliancy in its young days, its brightness was dimmed before its 20th year. Also produced lutes and guitars of slight consequence.
-----------------------------------------------
Zacharias Fischer, Hochfürstl: Lauten
und Geigenmacher in Würzburg, 1771
-----------------------------------------------
(sometimes in German lettering, also three lined)

FIVAZ, CHARLES F.
Worked in Essex Road, Islington (London), 1870-1899. Graceful design, accurately proportioned, and neatly finished. Extremely well cut scroll with the edges “picked out” in black. Reddish yellow varnish. £15.
--------------------------------
Charles Fivaz. Teluti
Fecit A.D. 1875. London
--------------------------------

FLAMBEAU, PIERRE
Worked at Paris, 1790-1816. Learned his profession at Mirecourt, and with Koliker at Paris. Modelling and workmanship associated with much that tends to present an agreeable contour. Reasonable resemblance to the Stradivarian model, but there is no mistaking its Mirecourtian character. Substantially built instruments. Yellow-brown varnish with a slight tinge of red - not especially attractive. Brilliant tone, without any sweetness. Good specimens catalogued at £20. ’Cellos with similar characteristics.
-------------------------
Flambeau
élève de M. Koliker
à Paris.
-------------------------
(written)
Also branded on or below button.

FLEURY, BENOIST
Worked at Paris, 1750-1792. Broadly proportioned modelling, rather imposing. Graceful flat arching with slightly raised edge. Plentifully wooded. Table wood frequently of broad grain. Backs sometimes of very plain maple, but of good quality. Longish scroll rather insignificantly unexpanded at the top, not corresponding with the substantial appearance of the body outline. Sound-holes seem to be set too far apart, also not endowed with much grace, being rather small and positioned on the verge of the perpendicular, also not prettily approached towards the middle nicks. Yellow, orange-yellow, orange-brown, and pale red shades of varnish. Tonal quality that gives these instruments a becoming place of honour among French makers. Catalogued at £50, 500 dollars in America. Equally excellent violas, ’cellos, and double-basses.
--------------------------------------------
Benoist Fleury, rue des Boucheries
Faubourg St. Germain à Paris. 1759
--------------------------------------------

FLEURY, H.
French bow maker in Paris, 1900-1927. Strong sticks, modelled after Tourte, generally with whalebone lapping. Stamped “H. Fleury”. £30 (1959).

FLORENTIN, N.
Worked at Mirecourt, 1790-1810. Largely proportioned pattern, wide across the waist, and particularly broad lower bouts. Flat arching, not too carefully calculated. Contour not altogether prepossessing, somewhat reminding of the elder Nicolas type. Workmanship of little refinement. Sound-holes seem rather wide apart, on account of the waist width. Orange yellow varnish thinly applied, cold-looking and certainly of commonplace appearance. Occasionally he used one of a chestnut shade which appears to be of better texture. Blatant tonal quality, vigorous but not especially pleasing. £20.
----------------
A la Ville
de Cremone
N. Florentin
----------------
Triangular brandmark with “N.F.” (ovalled) and a cross in the Centre.
Also built a few violins on the guitar-shaped model of Francois Chanot. Branded “M. Florentin”.

FONCLAUSE, JOSEPH
Sobriqueted “Le Mayeux”. Born 1800. Died at Paris, 1864. Bow maker. Made good progress under the guidance of Pajeot and Peccatte at Mirecourt. Employed by J. B. Vuillaume at Paris, 1825. Ultimately opened own workshop in the rue Paqerin. “Balance” is here given its fullest significance. Strength and elasticity beautifully welded together. Altogether charming bows to handle - workmanship irreproachably fine. Stamped “Fonclause” in broad lettering. £35 (1959).

FORD, JACOB
Worked in London, 1770-1795. Directed his attention to producing truly high works of art, and carried his imitative genius with loving zeal into a kind of Stainer-Amati atmosphere, yet not quite without a touch of something individualistic. Instruments such as these, if judged without prejudice, should make some of us mistrust many of the condescending remarks which certain connoisseurs sometimes give utterance to in a kind of patronising way, when alluding to English violins. In the world of violins, the support of the public is as stable as possible with reference to any dilapidated old Italian specimen, and quite as equally starved when it comes to the finer preserved English. We especially desire players to focus their attention on these rare examples of Ford, when they are unable to pay astronomical sums. We shall also be satisfied if we can impregnate the minds of readers to expand and fruitify by perceiving the very splendid tonal attributes of these violins - a tone contributing equal enjoyment to the listener as well as the player. Architecturally (allowing for the somewhat high arching), they admit of no adverse criticism. Body length 14 inches, but sometimes slightly longer. Margins beautifully full and perfectly rounded; solid-looking but entirely without heaviness. Corners rather pointed but artistically neat. Fairly bold scroll, well executed, not deserving of the slightest censure, and an especially open throat. Sound-holes more typically Amati-like than Stainer, being of graceful curvature with a slight slant, but rather a wide central aperture. Neat purfling placed very near to the edge, and sometimes with a strip of white wood between two very narrow strips of black wood. Carefully chosen belly wood, backs and ribs of handsome material. Deep-tinted golden yellow, or brownish golden varnish with a slight tinge of red. Inside work microscopically accurate. Tonal quality not large, but particularly clear and warmly mellow.
------------------
Jacob Ford
Maker
London 1792
------------------
---------------------------------------
Jacob Ford, Maker
South Street Gr. Sqre. London
1771
---------------------------------------
Both sometimes written with a lead pencil on the inner side of belly, close to left sound-hole. £100 (1959).

FORSTER, SIMON ANDREW
Son of William (3). Born in London, 1801. Died 1870. Pupil of father and Samuel Gilkes. Established in Frith Street, Soho, later in Macclesfield Street, Soho. Instruments generally dated from 1828 to 1840. Stainer outline with the usual high arching, reflecting little credit on the name of “Forster”. Also some of Stradivarian outline, having a contour amenable to no principle of harmony in the absurd, incongruous and almost grotesque high arching. Other details may be justly denounced as discordant. Accused of sometimes baking and chemicalising the wood. Fairly satisfactory oil varnish. Impoverished tonal quality, not much power, and little sweetness.
--------------------------------------------
S. A. Forster
Violin, tenor, and violoncello maker
No. . . . . London
--------------------------------------------
Also produced what he termed “his second class instruments”.
Workmanship evinces a poor standard of taste. Wretched spirit varnish. Altogether instruments of that class which excites grave astonishment at every modern attempt to revive them. Inscribed “Forster No. . .” at the tailpin. Inventor of a new form of tailpiece for the ’cello, which met with slight recognition. Joint author with William Sandys of the entertaining “History of the Violin”, published in 1864.

FORSTER, WILLIAM (1)
Son of John. Born 1714. Died 1801. Maker of spinning wheels at Brampton. Made and repaired violins as a relaxation from his usual employment. Considrerably superior to those of father, although he accomplished little that may be completely accepted today as artistic. Stainer modelling, no purfling, and spirit varnish. Certainly a fairly good and easily produced tone.
--------------------
William Forster
Violin Maker
in Brampton
--------------------

FORSTER, WILLIAM (2)
Born at Brampton, 1739. Son of William (1). Instructed by father in the making of spinning wheels, also initiated into the art of violin making. Accomplishments supplemented by practising the violin, and in this capacity he ultimately enjoyed a good local reputation for vivacious reel playing. Went to London, 1759, intending to follow the trade of spinning wheel making. Soon found his country ambitions “knocked on the head”. Made a few unlabelled violins, toured through the streets to the various music sellers, and thereby gained a little money to the rapid depletion of his finances. Next, set up as a gun-stock maker which likewise failed to lift him from the menace of starvation. Made a few more violins, did a second tour with every hope of disposing of them, offered his services as repairer, etc. and ultimately managed to get regular employment (at a poor wage) with a music seller named Beck on Tower Hill. Settled down after a few months, and seriously gave attention to the production of the best violins he could accomplish. These Stainer-modelled instruments soon brought along approving customers, and his name commenced its deserved circulation throughout London and the provinces. Started in business for himself in Duke’s Court, 1762. Speedy attainment of splendid reputation subsequently encouraged him to remove to more imposing premises in St. Martin’s Lane. To this flourishing business of violin making and dealing he added that of a music publisher, in which capacity (in 1781), he entered into an agreement with Haydn, and published 83 symphonies, 24 string quartets, and other compositions of that celebrated composer. Established at No. 348, The Strand, in 1784. There he gradually reached the high plateau of fame and financial prosperity, and enjoyed a very expansive “view particularly gratifying, after the stiffish up-hill climbing of earlier days. Issued (in 1795) a copper medal or token, the size of a halfpenny bearing on the obverse side “Wm. Foster, Violin, Tenor, and Violoncello Maker, No. 348, Strand, London”, with the addition of the Prince of Wales’ feathers. On the reverse side, the melody of “God save the King”, a Crown, the title of the melody, and date 1795. At that time, universally recognised as the premier violin maker of British birth. Died 1808. Generally alluded to as “Old Forster”. Sometimes as “Royal Forster”. Violins dated from 1762 to 1771 invariably of the Stainer model, and, judging from the highest standard, they do not assume the essence of grace in outline or arching; breadth of the lower bouts seeming out of proportion to the narrowness of the top. Workmanship generally free from any very perceptible blemishes. Apparently stained the wood previous to applying the varnish (now of a dark red shade with a blackish tinge). Tonal quality decidedly good for this particular high arched model. Favoured (after 1771) the modelling of the brothers A. and H. Amati, also of Nicolo, and these are altogether superior in construction. Comparatively broad pattern with medium arching. Scrolls often of massive design, but winningly spiritual and majestic. Rather original portrayal of sound-holes, result of deliberate and thoughtful intent. Generally closely grained material for tops, and prettily figured maple for ribs and backs. Reddish brown varnish not especially lustrous on the surface, but the tint lasts well. Occasionally tried an orange-red varnish which seems to be far richer and prettier than the former. Finally, the tone is always satisfactory if not really fine, and the possessor of a good specimen may well be proud of his treasure. Very occasionally set himself to copy the Stradivarius. Violas of similar outline and arching, and usually deep ribs. Body length usually just over 15 inches. ’Cellos considered to be quite superior to either the violins or violas. Most of them belong to the finely proportioned large Amatese model. Used two shades of varnish for these - yellow brown and dark red. The rather full and penetrating tone attracted all the ’cellists of his day, particularly the one at the head of them - Robert Lindley, who did so much to popularise the instruments, and sometimes persuaded the public to prefer them to Cremonas. Many have unusually wide grain belly wood.
Made a ’cello for George IV, since known as the “Royal George”, painted with the “arms” and the motto “Liberty and Loyalty”. Sold at Christie’s in London in 1903 for 52 guineas. Realised £120 at Puttick & Simpson’s sale rooms. Average catalogue price today £100. One specimen dated 1790 realised the astounding sum of 1500 dollars (1930).
Reputed (by their contemporaries), that both he, and son William (3) sometimes thinned the wood in the vicinity of the bridge, also increased the weight of the blocks and linings, thereby obtaining an unusually rich quality of tone without the assistance of legitimate old age; but the result of such tampering with the normal thickness particularly under the bridge, can have no other effect than that of tonal deterioration as the years pass. The assertion that William the elder resorted to any tricks at all is flatly contradicted by experts today, also the sound condition of the instruments themselves further emphasise the fact of his honesty. A kind of J. B. Vuillaume in his day - very versatile in building any model to suit his patrons - but he had a conscience and never faked. We like to think of him as a man who remained true to his art throughout life - one who had a predilection for the genuine, and clung to it with the utmost steadfastness. Many instruments about with Forster labels, many of them altogether of common appearance, sometimes even devoid of purfling, but they ought not to be attributed to anything coming from his hands, but rather to the unscrupulous ticketing of certain traffickers. Produced double-basses, but only four, and three of them were made for the private band of George III.
-------------------------------------
William Forster
Violin Maker
in St. Martin’s Lane, London
1762
-------------------------------------
(sometimes three-lined)
-----------------------------------------------------------------
William Forster
Violin, Violoncello, Tenor, and Bow-maker
Also Music Seller.
To their Royal Highnesses the
Prince of Wales and Duke of Cumberland.
Opposite the Church. St. Martin’s Lane, London.
N.B.
The above instruments are made in the best manner
and finished with the original varnish,
and a copy of every Capital Instrument in England
may be had
------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------
William Forster
--------------------
’Cellos have the date and number written in ink under tail-pin. £175 (1959).

FORSTER, WILLIAM (3)
Son and pupil of William (2). Known as “Young Forster”. Born in London, 1764. Died 1824. Amatese modelling often quite similar to that favoured by father. Workmanship variable and erratic, but as neat as possible when he chose to exercise care. Tonal quality often really sweet, sonorous, and very responsive. Brownish red varnish, lustrous and transparent. ’Cellos sometimes have some affinity to Stradivarian principles, and are especially fine-toned. Produced a few double-basses, which he let out on hire. Generally of indifferent workmanship and shaped almost like a ’cello. Violas, body length generally 15-1/2 inches. Sometimes signed above or below tailpin.
---------------------------------------------------------
William Forster Junr.
Violin, Violoncello, Tenor, and Bow Maker
1810. Also Music Seller No. 43.
to their Royal Highnesses the
Prince of Wales and the Duke of Cumberland.
---------------------------------------------------------
Some labels are without “Also Music Seller”, and sometimes written neatly to imitate printing.
------------------------------------------
Made and sold at
Forster’s Music Warehouse
41, Lisle Street, Leicester Square,
London, 1824
------------------------------------------

FORSTNER
Nine members of this family. Worked at Schönbach (Bohemia), 1880-1930. Ignaz perhaps the best. Trade violins, violas and ’cellos.

FOWERS, HERBERT
Born 1868. Pupil of Frank Howard. Resident at Draycott, 1900. Violins, violas, and ’cellos. Alard-Strad modelling, ruby-brown oil varnish.
---------------------------------
Made by
Herbert Fowers
Draycott, nr. Derby. 1925
---------------------------------

FRACASSI, A.
Born 1899. Pupil of Biondi. Worked at Casena. Splendid modelling, old Italian types, transparent oil varnish either of golden yellow or reddish brown shades.
-------------------------
Arturo Fracassi
fece in Cesena 19. .
-------------------------
(with autograph, and a fantastic animal balancing a bow on its left paw)

FRANÇAIS, EMILE MARCEL
Born 1894. Son and pupil of Henri. Worked for Penzel at Markneukirchen, and for Lyon and Healy, at Chicago. Established own premises at Paris, 1938, the same shop where Lupot worked. Appointed repairer to the Conservatoire. Decorated with the Legion of Honour. President of several associations in the city. Known as the “modern Vuillaume”. Assisted by a large staff of expert workmen. Famed for remarkable replicas of famous violins, violas, and ’cellos, including the Strad of Menuhin, Guarnerius of Ysaye, “King of Bavaria” Strad, etc. Created a new form of viola for quartets - laudatory notices received from French and Hungarian quartet players. £80 (1959).
--------------------------------------------------------
Fait sous la discipline
d’Emile Français
Luthier du Conservatoire national de Musique
No. Paris 19. .
--------------------------------------------------------
(with monogram on left)
--------------------------------------------------------
Fait sous la direction
d’Emile Francais
Luthier du Conservatoire national de Musique
12, Rue de Madrid. Paris (8e)
--------------------------------------------------------
Also branded “Emile Français Paris” with monogram and a lizard-like figure. Many really fine bows with certain originalities. Stamped “Emile Français à Paris” in two places.
Finally (in collaboration with Margot - celebrated lacquerist) made wonderful replicas of ancient decorative instruments including a viol-da-gamba titled “Terrestrial Paradise”, a violin named “Bénéfique sur le Maléfique”, and a viola called “Allegory”. These bear three different labels (with designs by Calbot), each having a musical stave and the clef corresponding to each instrument, and “Similes sed Singularis” at the foot. Quite unique.

FRANÇAIS, LUCIEN
Born at Mattaincourt (Vosges), 1886. Worked in Paris and London. Established at Nancy, 1922. Stradivarian modelling; dark red oil varnish.
-------------------------------------------
L. Français, Luthier
ex-Premier ouvrier des Premières
maisons de Paris et de Londres
No. Nancy. Anno 19. .
-------------------------------------------

FRANKE, PAUL
Born 1876. Made first instrument 1909. Established at Nürnberg (Bavaria), 1900-1927. Modelling somewhat after the large pattern Stradivarius, very slight arching, but outline not perfectly homogenous to the Cremona. Sound-holes and scroll accurately planned. Reddish yellow varnish of own preparation. Always the finest old wood. Esteemed in Germany.
---------------------------------
Paul Franke, Geigenbauer
Nürnberg gefertigt, 1910
---------------------------------

FRANOT, P.
Worked at Mirecourt, 1840-1870. Though having a few of the Maggini characteristics, the model is somewhat deficient of the original masculine dignity. Double purfling rather well done. Sound-holes and scroll show that the manipulator did not lose his way along the intricate road. Uneven grain of top wood, fine to wide. Yellow varnish. Other violins resemble those of Nicolas ainé - brown varnish. Branded “Px Franot”, or “Patrix Franot à Paris” in the usual label place.

FREDI, COUNT FABIO
Born at Lodi (Lombardy), 1845. Worked at Rome, 1879-1894. Workmanship externally and internally well-nigh perfect. Modelling demonstrates the fullest idea of beautiful contour. Superb, rich varnish very delightfully applied.

FREDI, COUNT RODOLFO
Born 1861. Son and pupil of the preceding. Established in the Via Vicenza, Rome. Professor of violin playing, 1875-1900. Died in 89th year, 1950. Produced first instrument, 1885. Built 450 violins, 70 violas, and 50 ’cellos, double-basses and many viols. Modelling based on that of a Stradivarius, but always something quite personal in several details which favourably impresses. . Woods either from the Tyrol, or the slopes of the Abruzzi mountains. Golden yellow, rose, or yellowish brown oil varnish. Instruments also made for wholesale dealers, good specimens of their class, and have a spirit varnish of various shades. Busied himself with manufacture of organs and pianos, 1920.
------------------
Rodolfo Fredi
fece in Roma
A.D.
------------------
(within a large pictorial design)
---------------------------
Rodolfo Fredi. Roma
---------------------------
(with initials and crown above)
-------------------------------
Rodolfo Fredi
fece in Roma anno 1901
-------------------------------
---------------------------
Rodolfo Fredi fece
in Roma l’anno 19. .
---------------------------

FRIEDRICH, JOHN
Born at Cassel (Germany), 1858. Gave evidence, when a boy, of skill which was subsequently developed under Schonger at Cassel. Worked for Möckel at Berlin, Hammig at Leipzig, and in other German centres. Went to New York, 1883, and by sheer force of merit worked his way into rivalship with Gemunder after three years residence. Also a capable violinist. Died 1943. Produced about 300 violins, violas, and ’cellos, all entirely his own handiwork. Recognising the perfection to which the old Italian makers brought their art, he endeavoured to model instruments after the best originals of Nicola Amati, Stradivarius, Guarnerius, and Maggini. Having had many opportunities of a completely critical observation when taking the old master violins to pieces, he built his exactly (as regards the thicknesses) as they did. Workmanship represents the choicest neatness gained by any maker, past or present. Wood used possesses those remarkable tonal qualities which give that rare sonorousness, purity, softness, far-carrying and sympathetic timbre. Always justly prided himself upon the preparation and application of the varnish. This possesses much of the distinguishing characteristics of the Cremonese - transparent, strongly adhesive to the wood, soft in its consistency, and brilliancy of surface. When worn, either naturally or by artificial means, it reproduces the brilliant colouring, as well as the fire-like radiance which adorns the famous Cremonas. Application of varnish done exactly to faithfully represent the worn appearance of the old originals. Stradivarius replicas have a golden brownish varnish under which the wood fibres flash out like small fish-scales. Guarnerius replicas have been treated to a fine display of brownish red shade, absolutely wonderful. Every man has little weaknesses, and Friedrich occasionally evidenced his in the apparent impatience of hand whilst tracing the purfling.
The World’s Fair held at Chicago, 1893, afforded him the opportunity of bringing about a wider knowledge of his productions. Of this he took the fullest advantage, and placed an exhibit of completed and incompleted instruments which gained the highest award and a special diploma of merit. Similar critical encomiums were received at the World’s Exposition, St. Louis, 1904. Many letters of commendation from the finest players afforded him considerable joy, and encouraged him in his truly artistic efforts. ’Cellos (few) equally resplendent in workmanship and varnish, and have a tonal quality that renders them attractive to soloists.
---------------------------
John Friedrich fecit
New York anno 1903
---------------------------
(decorative border - monogram double-circled)
Bows also highly prized for their elasticity of stick and finely finished workmanship. Modelled after Tourte, Voirin and others. £100. Bows £30.

FRITSCH, JEAN
Born 1910. Apprenticed to Dieudonné at Mirecourt. Worked for Serdet at Paris. Established own premises, 1934. Cremonese and Neapolitan models; reddish orange and reddish brown varnish. £50 (1959).
-------------------------
Jean Fritsch à Paris
Année 1938
-------------------------

FULLER, HENRY
Born 1863. Resident at Plaistow (London), 1910. Strad and Guarnerian modelling, well conceived and treated to careful workmanship. Also a smaller model (became quite popular) for ladies. Golden-red to red-brown shades of varnish.
-------------------
Henry Fuller
Plaistow, 1929
-------------------
(written, surrounded by dots)

FURBER, DAVID
Worked in London, 1758-1780. Apprenticed to John Johnson and copied his style. Modelling after Stainer. Workmanship and design not particularly praiseworthy. Poor quality of varnish.

FURBER, HENRY
Worked at 185 Euston Road, London, 1872-1888. Workmanship has artistic merits of no inferior order, even when placed beside a Cremona. Special novelty in the conception, but the outline and arching have a fascination which few connoisseurs are able to resist. Modelling after the best examples of Stradivarius and Guarnerius, though frequently of larger proportions. Arching carried out with the utmost nicety. A perfect embodiment of repose will be found in the scroll. Sound-holes accurately placed, and very graceful. Purfling of neater manipulation rarely seen. Top wood of fine fibre, and handsomely figured maple. Reddish orange varnish of rich quality. Good full tone getting more mellow every day. Produced several fine violas particularly useful for orchestral purposes. General body length 16-1/2 inches, occasionally 17.
------------------------------------------------------
H. Furber
Violin, Violoncello, and Double Bass Maker
1876
------------------------------------------------------
(rather heavy, squarish type, sometimes in small italics and without place name)
------------------
H. Furber
London, 1886
------------------

FURBER, HENRY JOHN
Son and pupil of John. Worked in Grafton Street, London, 1825-1868. Made a large number of instruments. Favoured the Strad model but occasionally copied others. He has no claim to originality of thought or plan, but there is seldom anything strained or stilted though the workmanship is not always neat. Never very successful with the perfect curving and fluting of the scroll. Not always careful in choice of wood, top wood often of broad grain, and of plain figure for the backs. Varnish of various shades according to the model he imitated. Frequently of poor quality and indifferently applied. Some instruments have a remarkably excellent tone. Seldom labelled with own name. £30 has been realised for best specimens. £60 (1959).

FURBER, JOHN
Worked in London, 1810-1845. Superb copyist of the grand Amati model, and the Betts Strad. There is not a single detail on which he did not exercise the talent and care of the conscientious worker, though a few amateurs might disapprove of the sometimes pronounced grooving near the edge. Golden-red varnish not thickly applied. Tone as mellow as the instrument is graceful. Worked for J. E. Betts at the Royal Exchange, and several instruments supposed to be the work of Betts (and labelled as such), were really constructed by Furber. £50 (1959).
-----------------------------------------------
John Furber. Maker
13 St. John’s Row, top of Brick Lane
Old St. Saint Luke, 1813
-----------------------------------------------
Worked at Cow Cross, Smithfield, 1841, also in Turnmill Street, Clerkenwell.

FURBER, MATTHEW
Worked at Clerkenwell, London, 1780-1831. Made a large number of instruments of various models. Workmanship has few inequalities, and the yellow (usually) varnish is fairly generously applied. Ordinary tone which received a value of £20 (1930). £65 (1959).
---------------------------
Matthew Furber
Maker
77 Turnmill Street
Clerkenwell, London
---------------------------

FURBER, WILLIAM
Worked in London, 1820-1840. Violins of third-rate order. Generally a rather harsh tone.