MACCARTHY, JOHN LEADER TEMPLE
Born at Calcutta (India) 1907. Pupil of A. L. Scholes, at Bedford. Modelling somewhat Stradivarian; red varnish.
-------------------------
J. L. T. MacCarthy
Cambridge, England
No. . . . 1924
-------------------------

MAGGINI, GIOVANNI PAOLO
Born at Botticino near Brescia, 1580. Apprenticed to Gasparo da Salò. Worked in the Contrada del Palazzo Vecchio del Podestà, Brescia, where he plied his trade as a “Maestro di violini”. Died of the plague, 1630. From the germination of the seed to its ultimate perfection in the fruit, we have to contemplate a series of progressions. Closely analogical is the art of violin making, where successive developments have conducted us from the small to the great, from the narrow and circumscribed to the boundless, in a system of gradation and according to a fixed scheme of cause and effect. Art thus arises from the first feeble efforts of power as puerile in its commencement as the tiny grasp of childhood, and slowly advances to its stature of colossal greatness. Violin making, from the rude labours of the earliest, has advanced to the most admirable of wonders; from the rough if not uninteresting outline of the miscellaneous tribe of instruments foreshadowing Gasparo da Salò to the elaborate and highly finished Stradivarius. It has followed the slow track of observation and tardily erected its fabric on the foundation of long continued experiment, sometimes seeming to progress, at others, detecting some fundamental error, casting away this and that idea and recommencing on a new found plan, till at length, after years of labour and failures, its beauty sparkles in the meridian sunshine. When we see a second or third period Maggini violin we view a course of gradations, each of which is linked in a beautiful connection with that preceding and that succeeding it, and can follow with confidence the continuity of the chain. First period certainly shows the influence of Gasparo da Salò, the same heaviness of build, abrupt corners and carelessly inlaid purfling generally inlaid in double line. Long and pointed sound-holes, undercut, or have inside bevelled edges, showing that the characteristics of the ancient viol held considerable sway in his mind. Maple wood for the back generally cut on the slab; and he adopted the shape-plan for the table (also furnishing a comparison link between the viol and violin) but subsequently changed his method to cutting the wood with the straight way of the grain. Scroll, though exhibiting an abundance of character (not necessarily bound to be admired however) is very indifferently modelled and nearly as primitive as that of a Gasparo da Salò, sides frequently bear no uniformity of grading with each other, fluting at the back remarkably irregular and the face, too, deeply and certainly unevenly shaped. Wall of peg box (in the region of the A string peg) does not prepare the grooving for the curves of the scroll, it starts there abruptly and shows an edge. In treading this path of his semi-initiative period he was only occupied a few years and contented himself with producing but few instruments. Then he entered on his second period, the period forming the connecting link to the masterpieces of Stradivari, and as Maggini’s views enlarged in the certainty of progression so his energies increased. Violins of this period seem to leave Salò standing alone. Maggini was carefully venturing on a new and then unknown path of introducing the side linings and corner blocks which every maker has since followed. He tried slightly higher arching and a more pronounced border, gave greater attention to the purfling, showed more cleverness in cutting the sound-holes (but without quite deviating from the originality of the first period) and attained finer symmetry in his large scrolls. Chose wood of the finest quality and seldom cut the back on the slab. In this period he rose from point to point until reaching his acme. Never declined from that position of exaltation, and the successive changes in his advance to maturity were unusually rapid. Workmanship never subsided into feebleness or unsightliness and his violins are constituted to outblast the ravages of time for they maintain their vigorous freshness whilst other maker’s instruments exhibit the “blights of winter” and dismal forms of decay. Such is the firmness and durability of the Maggini structure. Still finer are those belonging to the third period, show a less towering but not less imperishable form and greater gracefulness combined with steadier firmness, all seeming to point to the fact that he was considerably influenced by the then recently produced instruments of Antonio and Girolamo Amati. Swell of arching not so decided, and slopes more gradually to the sides. Sides appear relatively shallow on account of the broad and long outline. Edges less heavy looking. Every angle splendidly rounded. Wood cut “on the layers”, the back being cut thinner than the front part, which is relatively very strong and seems slightly out of proportion. Yet everything is accurately gauged otherwise the tone would be impaired. Unusually large and long sound-holes (with the top and bottom curl rather small), elegantly curved, well-cut and minutely finished. Scroll does not quite lose its former primitiveness but is more graceful, and the fluting not so hollowed. Nearly all instruments double purfled and some of it is indeed, very originally conceived. Many further ornamented on the back with fantastic curls of considerable variety similar to that employed during the viol period. These decorations take the form of a conventional trefoil, finishing off the limbs of a St. Andrew’s Cross in the centre, which is sometimes varied by a lozenge projected between the limb of the Cross and occasionally the tre oil gives place to three small squares. Some have the clover leaf device at top arid bottom of back, others have a tableau of a city, medallions, royal crests and other magnificent drawings of a purely imaginative character. There are, however, two or three specimens which have only one line of purfling, also one known with a double purfled front, but only imitated purfling on the back, the double line being drawn in pencil or ink. Varnish always varying in colour, excites the warmest admiration. He was at first partial to a clear brown, but as the model underwent series of changes he arrived at a more brilliant and transparent golden colour (sometimes reddish brown), all being particularly rich in quality. When we have admired the external beauty of these instruments and wonder at their extreme size (which rendered them unpopular for many, many years) we still have to be astonished at the extraordinary and unique sonority of the tone, never harsh or metallic but of a sombre mellowness rather analogous to that of the viol and therefore not brilliant, a charm distinctively belonging to a Maggini and never produced from those of any other maker. De Bériot and the many critics who, in periodicals, exploited their opinions of his performances, considered his gorgeous specimen to have the finest tone in creation and also possessed such a variegated mellowness that an accurate representation of its total beauties were absolutely beyond the delineation of the pen.
When Wieniawski met De Bériot at Ems he offered 20,000 francs for possession of this highly decorated instrument, but the princely sum was refused. Formerly belonged to the Empress Maria Theresa, who presented it to Kennis (Belgian violinist who frequently played with his patroness). Then it came into the hands of De Bériot, from whom it passed to Léonard, who afterwards desired his favourite pupil, Marteau, to have it. This young virtuoso (in 1890) paid Léonard’s widow 25,000 francs for it, and many times since then its commercial value has been estimated at £1,400.
Another fine specimen which was in the collection of C. B. Schley (famous American connoisseur), came into the hands of Lyon & Healy of Chicago who, in 1920, offered it for sale at 4,500 dollars. Magnus Ahlberg (Conservator of instruments in the Royal Acamdey of Music, Stockholm, 1912) owned a second Maggini violin which previously belonged to Léonard. Body length 37 cm (about 14.9/16 inches); Upper bouts 17.1 cm; lower 21.2. Workmanship seems to belong to the second period. Violas have high arching which immediately commences its gradient from the inner line of the double purfling, body length 50 cm.
High border, sides set close to the edges of the back and belly, leaving the slightest of margins. Short corners a noticeable feature. Short sound-holes higher positioned than customary in the violins. Also wide, stiffishly upright and with the inner edge undercut. Golden brown varnish exceedingly beautiful. Measurements: body length 432 mm; upper bouts 208; middle 140; lower 248; ribs 36. ’Cellos of similar modelling to that of violas. Sides rather low, sound-holes placed somewhat high.
About 60 violins, 9 violas, 2 ’cellos, 1 double bass and a few viols, are the total contributions of his industry.
Charles Winterbottom (principal player in London for many years) possessed a double bass which has a carved scroll by Benvenuto Cellini. Body length 3ft. 8-3/4 inches; upper bouts 22-1/4 inches; middle 15; lower 27-1/2; ribs 8-3/4. Arnold Dolmetsch had a perfect viol of six strings which gave a wonderful richness of tone. Beautifully inlaid fingerboard and varnish of an exquisite brown tint. Labels very brief, one line and never dated, a fact which assists in detecting a forgery. Very fine example owned by the well-known collector, Mr. Cyril Woodcock of London. A late period model valued in 1958 at £1,000. Today’s price, £650 early model up to £1,500 late model.
-------------------------------------
Gio. Paolo Maggini in Brescia.
-------------------------------------
-------------------------------
Paolo Maggini in Brescia
-------------------------------
Mozart is supposed to have played on a viola of Maggini. Sold to Jansa the Viennese violinist, 1826, and finally came in the collection of Edward Speyer, who (in an article in Le Guide Musical, Paris) gave much documentary evidence and the following label: -
--------------------------
Giouani Paulo Megri
A Brescia, 1615
--------------------------
In 1907 a monument was erected at Brescia with the following inscription: -
Giovanni Paolo Maggini
nato in Botticino Sero nell 1580.
fu allievo di Gaspare da Salò
ne perfezionò lo strumento
maestro di Violini chiamondosi
lavorò in questa casa
donde l’arte sua diffuse
e vi mori forse
nella pestilenzia del 1630.
A very detailed and erudite monograph on the life and work of Maggini, compiled from material in the State archives collected by Miss Huggins and Hill & Sons, is published by Novello.

MAGNIÈRE, GABRIEL
Worked at Mirecourt. Instrument bearing No. 233 made in 1890. Impressive Stradivarian modelling though of the mass production type. Fine grain belly wood, generally too thin and pretty two-piece backs. Red and red brown varnish. £5.
--------------------------------
Fait par moi
Gabriel Magniere Luthier
Mirecourt, 1884.G+M
--------------------------------
Also branded “Magnière”. Some specimens anti-dated 70 or 80 years.

MAIRE, NICOLAS (1)
Worked at Mirecourt, 1774. Son of Michel. Did not break from the convention of the ordinary French factory violin but the proportions are nicely correct. Varnish not warm looking.

MAIRE, NICOLAS (2)
Born at Mirecourt, 1800. Died 1878. Pupil of Jacques Lafleur. Worked in Paris. Splendidly made bows, but for all their perfect balance we think he made them too robust and consequently too heavy for soloists.

MALAGUTI, ERMINIO
Born 1914. Established at Milan, 1938. Well fashioned violins much in the style of Scarampella of Mantua. Many specimens exported to America.
-----------------------------
Malaguti Erminio
Milano M
Fece nell’ anno 1947 E
-----------------------------
(with signature)

MALINE
Worked at Mirecourt, 1810-1830. Violins and ’cellos of broad Stradivarian modelling. Good workmanship though the maker shows no special fervour for refinement. Breasts of fine grain material, backs of ordinarily flamed wood. Yellow brown varnish, frequently commented on as being dry, cold and soulless. Strong tone with a certain brilliance though never glowing with real warmth. £25, 1925. £65, 1960.
----------------------------
Maline lutier
Mirecourt Année 1820
----------------------------
(written)
Also branded “Maline” above label.

MALINE, GUILLAUME
Born at Mirecourt, 1793. An earnest thinker who made bows commending themselves to all who have proper regard of combined strength and elasticity. Splendid heads having a deep curve down the back. Often beautiful material, sometimes gold mounted. Stamped “Maline”. £25 to £35, 1960.

MALVOLTI, PIETRO ANTONIO
Worked at Florence, 1707-1722. Attractive in style, not unlike the Gabrielli. No blemishes encroach on the graceful ensemble. Scroll and sound-holes in perfect proportion to the rather small modelling. Handsome wood covered with a beautifully soft varnish, either light brown, orange or yellow. Tonal quality of moderate power but brilliantly clear and resonant. £30, 1925. £175, 1960.
-------------------------------
Petrus Antonius Malvolti
Florent fecit anno 1709
-------------------------------
Sometimes mis-spelt “Masaolti”.

MANDELLI, CAMILLO
Born at Calco (Como), 1873. Pupil of Bisiach and Antoniazzi. Worked at Buenos Aires, 1889. Returned to Calco, 1920. Paid many visits to Tyrolian forests in search of special woods. Violins which show his endeavour to deal truthfully and fairly with every feature of the standard classical models, therefore nothing inconsistent with true art. Artistry further exemplified in the application of superb varnish, brownish red and golden red. The tone also is particularly inviting. Made his latest ’cello in 75th year. Also several fine toned double basses with arched backs, generally bearing the name “Camillo da Calco”. £90, 1960.
----------------------
Camillo da Calco
fecit Anno 1922
---------------------
-------------------------
Camillo Mandelli
“fidibus, fide, fidis”.
Camillo da Galco
fece Anno 1947
-------------------------
------------------------------
Camillo Mandelli
“fidibus, fide, fidis”
Camillus Calcensis fecit
Anno Domini 1932
-----------------------------
(decorative border)

MANGENOT, AMATI
Born at Mirecourt, 1901. Son and pupil of Paul Alexandre. Worked with Laurent at Brussels. Opened atelier at Clermond-Ferrand 1922. Removed to Bordeaux, 1925. Amatese-Strad modelling, fine workmanship. Oil or amber varnish of reddish shade on an old gold yellow background.
-----------------------------
P. Amati Mangenot fils
Luthier
à Mirecourt (Vosges)
No.-
----------------------------
Signature on fourth line.
-------------------------------
Fair par Amati Mangenot
Elève de Emile Laurent
A Bordeaux l’an 19-
-------------------------------
(with monogram circled)
-------------------------------
Amati Mangenot, Luthier
------------------------
a Bordeaux. l’an 19-
-------------------------------
With name on the line of the particular ancient model replicated.

MANGENOT, PAUL ALEXANDRE
Born at Mirecourt, 1862. Apprenticed to Justin Derazey. Made ’cellos for CollinMézin. Worked for Hel at Lille, also at Brussels, Geneva, Lyons and Paris. Returned to Mirecourt, 1888. Bought the business of Derazey (including the trade brands of D. Nicolas ainé and Honoré Derazey). Engaged several workmen to carry on the traditions of those names. Brands disposed of to Laberte, 1920. Continued to produce his own instruments, 1925. Died 1942. Violins, violas, ’cellos and basses, generally Stradivarian or Guarnerian, extremely artistic and neat workmanship. Choicest timbers, very effective orange red or darker red varnish. Tonal quality exceptionally free and sonorous, instruments favoured by orchestral players, particularly ’cellists. Violins catalogued at 13 guineas. £60, 1960.
--------------------------
Paul Mangenot
Luthier
à Mirecourt. Vosges
No.
--------------------------
Bearing the signature “P. Mangenot, père”, also branded “P. Mangenot”.

MANSUY
Worked at Mirecourt, 1740-1786, though Paris sometimes is indicated. Thoroughly well-made instruments. Stradivarian modelling of normal measurements, not so broad at waist curves as that of the general Mirecourt style. Wide grain belly wood, handsome slab back. Often a dull brownish-yellow varnish, but occasionally a light orange or reddish-brown of better quality. Tonal quality of agreeable fullness if not of sweetness. Catalogued at £10 to £15 according to varnish. Branded “Mansuy à Paris” or “Mansuy. Mirecourt”.
Many specimens seen dated 1900 and onwards which are products of a Mirecourt firm who purchased the brands. £45, 1960.

MANTEGAZZA (MANTEGATIA), PIETRO GIOVANNI
Worked at Milan 1747-1796. Associated with brothers until 1775, then alone. Some instruments finely replicate the Nicolo Amati except the scroll, which is larger and less elegant. These are usually treated to a very fine oil varnish of dark orange or red shades, well preserved. All workmanship comparatively flawless, also finest wood. Tonal quality of considerable richness, and worthy of any quartet leader. He was however, a maker of variegating moods, and several speciments (though of Amati outline and medium arching) have pronounced edges, carelessly done soundholes, wood of faint figure, and a brownish varnish. Much of his varnish was too rich in resin, consequently it has now frequently become quite dark, in fact almost black. Also exercised his versatility with models of a Strad and Guarnerius, also a few of very high arching. Some gloriously mellow toned violas known. Measurements of two (different sizes) dated 1791 and 1796 - body length 40.7 and 43.4 cm; upper bouts 19.5; and 20.3; lower 24.3 and 26.3. A quartet of instruments called “il quartetto di lutto” had prominent notice at the Milan Exhibition, 1881. £450, 1960.
--------------------------------------
Petrus Joes Fratresq
Mantegatia Mediolani
in Via S.Margaritae anno 1750
--------------------------------------
(Prettily scrolled, small neat lettering)
------------------------------------------------
Pietro Gio . e fratelli Mantegazza nella
contrada di Santa Marguarita in Milano
al segno dell’ Angelo, 1756
------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------
Petrus Joannes Mantegatia fecit
Mediolani in Via S.Margaritae, 1783
---------------------------------------------
Others give the name Mantegratia or Mantegrazia. A name much “played about with” by unscrupulous dealers, many violins of indeterminate model as well as anything resembling the Amati have been ticketed as Mantegatias.

MARCHAND, F. EUGÈNE
Born at Mirecourt, 1858. Pupil of Durand and Laurent. Worked for Hill and Sons (London), 1890; and for Sylvestre (Paris), 1897. Established own premises at Paris, 1902. Died 1916. Especially adept in restorative work. Marvellous replicator of old instruments particularly of Cappa and Ruggieri. Also ’cellos. £85, 1960.
--------------------
E. Marchand
Paris. l.an 1913
--------------------

MARCHETTI, ABBONDIO
Worked at Milan, 1813-1840. Well-formed outline, and flat arching. Artistic scroll and sound-holes. Remarkably good quality of brownish-red varnish. Tonal quality fresh and strong. £175, 1960.
----------------------------------
Marchetti Abbondio
Fece in Milano l’anno 1816
----------------------------------
Some instruments falsely dated 1780.

MARCHETTI, ENRICO
Born at Milan, 1855. Worked at Turin 1879. Died 1930. Clever copies (outlined and arched with great skill) of the master violins. Especially interesting replications of the Gagliano. Body length, 14 inches. All details pleasingly represented and smoothly treated. Handsome wood, and brilliant yellow varnish tinted with fine effect. £100, 1960.
-----------------------------------------------
Enrico Marchetti Mediolanensis
Premiato con diciotto Medaglie alle
primarie Esposizioni estere e nazionali
fecit Taurini anno Domini, 1924
----------------------------------------------
(with M.E.T. in black circle)

MARCHI, GIOVANNI ANTONIO (1)
Worked at Bologna, 1660-1730. Easy to detect his predilection for the peculiarities of the early Gagliano school, though the arching gives a slight deviation by a pretty originality in the height. Scrolls structurally perfect; ardour of innovation not carried beyond bounds of artistic propriety. Sound-holes and purfling convincingly neat. Splendour exemplified in the golden brown varnish, sometimes of light tint, also of a deeper one but not less brilliant, and occasionally with some red impregnated. Finely flamed material for backs and ribs. Belly wood often of broad grain. Tonal quality not powerful but of charming clarity and mellow sonority, not inferior to many higher priced £50 (1925). ’Cellos also of considerable elegance, tout-ensemble attractively spread out.
----------------------------------
Joannes Antonius Marchi
fecit Bononiae. Anno 1693.
----------------------------------
(with and without decorative border)
Sometimes on parchment. Name occasionally given as “Marcia”. £150, 1960.

MARCHI, GIOVANNI ANTONIO (2)
Son of the preceding. Worked at Bologna and Milan, 1740-1805. Workmanship good, but less refined than that of his predecessor. Moreover, there is a slight veil of heaviness detracting from absolute elegance. Generally of medium arching but occasionally verging on the bulgy. Waist curves often quite long. Sound-holes rather short with a non-too-happy position between slanting and perpendicularity. Prettily wooded and golden yellow varnish. £35 (1926). Label same as the preceding. £95, 1960.

MARCONCINI, GIUSEPPE
Born 1774. Son of Luigi Aloisio. Studied with Storioni. Settled at Ferrara. Died 1841. Workmanship varies considerably, but many of his instruments may be placed on a level with those of his teacher. These, slightly arched and of Amatese-Strad pattern, will become (the farther time wings its flight from the age in which he lived) more and more honoured and valued for their splendid tone. Belly wood often wide grained, two-piece back of very straight flame, body length 35.5 cm. Covered with a brilliant red or golden brown varnish. One example (dated 1830) realised 500 dollars in America, 1920. £350, 1960.

MARCONCINI, LUIGI ALOISIO
Worked at Bologna and Ferrara, 1760-1791. Pupil of Omobono Stradivari. Delightfully graceful instruments. Frequently mentioned in laudatory terms by experts. Catalogued at 600 dollars in America, 1930. He had the happy faculty of slightly stepping aside from the beaten path customarily trodden by Italians. Arching and outline both furnish this originality and has succeeded perfectly in his treatment of both. Body length 35.8 cm. Disposition of sound-holes free from disagreeable angularities, having a beautiful undulation from the upper to the lower curve, no easy task to effect. Attitude of scroll entirely natural. Admirable varnish, either a handsome orange brown or pale red. Tonal quality of that richness we search for when desiring an ideal quartet instrument, a clear and penetrating sweetness. All specimens certainly add to his reputation as a maker of independent thought, and a very careful executant. ’Cellos generally of noble dimensions. One dated 1767 had the remarkable body length of 32 inches, and was sold for £200. Also double basses, lutes and viol-d’amours. £400 to £500, 1960.
---------------------
Luigi Marconcini
f. Bologna
---------------------
-------------------------
Aloysius Marconcini
Bologna fecit 1765
-------------------------
---------------------
Luigi Marconcini
in Ferrara 1767
---------------------
----------------------------
Aloysius Marconcini
Ferrariensis de Ferrara
anno 1770
----------------------------
------------------------
Aloisio Marconcini
Ferrara 1778
------------------------

MARIANI, ANTONIO
Cheap factory made crudities dated 1880-1890. Long and somewhat distorted model, dark brown varnish, double purfling, corners vulgarly decorated in ivory with “Fleur de Lys”.
--------------------
Antonio Mariani
Pesaro. 1888
--------------------

MARISSAL, OLIVIER
Born 1884. Son and pupil of Auguste. Established at Lille, 1933. Excellent Strad and Guarnerian modelling, reddish oil varnish. Written label.

MARSIGLIESE, BIAGIO CARUANA
Double bass player. Worked in Rome from 1905. Received gold medals at Padua, Rome, Florence and Cremona (1949). Specialised in making double basses, now much used by Italians. Warm looking orange yellow varnish. Also splendid violins, violas and ’cellos.
-----------------------------------------------------------
B. Caruana Marsigliese
premiato studio di liuteria artistica
opera N. Roma-Via Crescenzio, 103 anno 1949
-----------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------
Biagio Marsigliese-Siciliano
Fece anno 1946. Roma
----------------------------------
(with signature)
---------------------------------
Biagio Caruana Marsigliese
fece in Roma anno 1948
---------------------------------
(with design)
------------------------------------
Biagio marsigliese Caruana
fece in Roma anno 1942. XX
------------------------------------
(with design)

MARTIN
Worked at Hermitage Bridge, Wapping (London), 1790-1798. Happily devised Amati model of interesting breadth, general effect not upset by the rather full sides. Well moulded edges, corners a trifle over-developed. Sound-holes set rather far apart (one of the principal traits to identify his work), upper turns not particularly graceful, but otherwise of satisfactory design. Dark and light-brown varnish, embodies qualities which would be desirable to see more frequently on old English violins. Broad tone of reasonable sweetness combined with clarity.
Some instruments are guitar-shaped. £45, 1960.
---------------------------------
Martin
Musical Instrument Maker
Hermitage Bridge. London
---------------------------------
(not dated)

MARTIN
Worked at Paris, 1770-1806. Made violin-guitars, red varnish, sound-holes have the shape of leeches, like those of certain old viols. Branded “Martin à Paris” or “Martin”.

MARTIN
Worked at Thuringia (Central Germany). His conception of violin-making was indeed ordinary. Workmanship seems to have been done by a timid hand. Brownish varnish of poor quality. Label does not give town or date. Syle of work suggests 1780 as the probable period.
------------------
Martin
Geigenmacher
in Thüringen
------------------

MARTIN
Worked at Leipzig. Bow-maker. As instances of careful and successful finish, there are no better bows originating from Germany at the small cost of two guineas. Not artists’ bows, but made for orchestral players. The only deviation from the artistic is the rather large head, but this does not upset the balance. Stamped “Martin”. Finely polished Pernambuco sticks - silver mounted. £10, 1960.

MARTIN, E.
Worked in Saxony, 1915. Very ordinary bows but neatly made, dark sticks and German-silver mounts. Stamped “E. Martin. Sachsen”.

MARTIN, JEAN JOSEPH
Born at Mirecourt, 1837. Worked for J. B. Vuillaume at Paris. Died 1910. Made many splendid bows, only a few branded with his name. “J. J. Martin”.

MARTINENGHI, MARCELLO
Born at Venice in 1907. Son of Stelio. Worked at Milan 1932, and at Bassano del Grappa, 1943. Won gold medals and silver medals at Florence, Padua and Rome. Received laudatory testimonials by several violinists and ’cellists. Rational modelling, beautifully transparent varnish of golden yellow or brown shades - oil and spirit. Everything splendidly homogeneous. £125, 1960.
---------------------------------
Marcello Giovanni Battista
Martinenghi di Stelio
Opus
Venezia, 1948
--------------------------------
(with signature - also coat of arms of the City)

MARTINI, ORESTE
Born at Mantua 1893. Studied the double-bass in 14th year. Pupil of Scarampella for violin making. Won medals at Cremona, Padua and Paris. £125, 1960. Made (up to year 1949) 300 violins, 10 violas and 50 ’cellos - copies of ancient Italians, very choice woods, reddish-brown varnish. Also 45 double-basses with arched backs, some with reddish varnish of sombre hue, others with reddish-orange.
------------------------------------
Martini Oreste Mantova
Premiato con Medaglia d’ore
fece anno 19 . .
------------------------------------
(with signature)
-------------------------------------------------------
Martini Oreste
Instrumenti ad Arco
Premiato con Gran Premio e Medaglia d’oro
-------------------------------------------------------
(signed and dated)
One with similar wording except second line, which reads “Instrumenti musicali”.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oreste Martini - Mantova.
Premier con gran premio e med. d’oro all ’Esposizione di Parigi.
Con gran premio e medaglia d’oro all ’Esposizione di Padova.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

MAST, JEAN LAURENT
Worked at Mirecourt and Paris, 1750-1789. Large and flat model, uppish shoulders, not particularly attractive. Weak scroll, too wide at the throat, and front does not come sufficiently forward. Sound-holes too straight in stem. Careless purfling. In no detail of workmanship can he claim honours. Moreover he had not sufficient knowledge to rightly understand varnishes and varnishing, and further disfigured his instruments by a thick spirit preparation, originally of dark brown or deep red shade, but now gone almost black. Strong but roughish tone, £20 being the recognised value. (1920).
Branded -
-------------
J. L. Mast
A. Paris
-------------
or
-----------
L. Mast
a Paris
-----------
at the top of the back as well as inside where the label is usually placed.

MAUCOTEL, CHARLES
Born at Mirecourt, 1807. Pupil of Blaise Mast. Worked for Gand at Paris, 1834. Came to London, 1844. Retired 1860. Returned to France. Died 1860. Conscientious worker, took pride in only turning out first-class instruments. Prepared a rich varnish and arrived at highly satisfactory tonal results. £70, 1960.
-------------------------
Carolus Maucotelus.
fecit Londini, 1852.
-------------------------

MAUCOTEL, ERNEST
Born at Mirecourt, 1867. Apprenticed to Paul Bailly. Worked for his uncle at Moscow, 1885. Partner of H. C. Silvestre, 1900. Associated with Paul Deschamp (distinguished expert), 1922. Generally replicas of Seraphino, Montagnana, and Gofriller. Reddish-brown oil varnish. £90, 1960.
--------------------------
Silvestre et Maucotel
Paris, 1901. No. 439
--------------------------
-----------------------------
Maucotel et Deschamp
Paris. 19 . . No. . .
-----------------------------

MAURIZI, FRANCESCO
Worked at Appignano (Italy), 1840. Died 1903. Outline rather attractive in spite of the rather abrupt curvatures of the waist. Quick gradient from the purfling then flat near centre, a pronounced dip all round. Narrow edging, purfling very near the edge. Large but weak-looking scroll, not carefully worked at the approaches to the boss, too abrupt at the front - scalloping not at all smooth. Longish narrow sound-holes, having some characteristics of the Amati but less handsome, upper curves rather inartistically broadened. Brownish-golden varnish, of fair quality but slight transparency. Splendid and prettily marked material, plentifully and accurately thicknessed. Nicely full tonal quality, very clear though only having a modicum of real brilliance. £100, 1960.
------------------------
Anno 1850
Franciscus Maurizi
Appineanensis
Fecit.
------------------------
sometimes pretty ornamented border, occasionally of large oval shape, not always dated)
-----------------------------------
Francesca Maurizi
fece in Appignani, nel 1856.
-----------------------------------
------------------------------
Fecit Franciscus Maurizi
Apponeani
------------------------------
------------------------------
Fecit Franciscus Maurizi
Apponeani, 1798.
------------------------------
this is falsely dated by dealers)

MAUSSIELL, LEONARD
Born 1685. Worked at Nürnberg (Bavaria), 1706-1765. Frequently copied the Stainer outline and excessive arching, others bear a resemblance to the Tecchler style with slightly reduced arching - very occasionally tried flatter modelling. Compressed scroll, but neatly worked, many specimens have elegantly carved heads of women’s or lions’ faces. Narrow sound-holes. Purfling rather shaky, frequently of whalebone. Belly wood generally of medium grain, generally onepiece backs. Dark golden-orange or yellow, or brownish-red shades of varnish - very seldom light yellow. Tonal quality quite excellent notwithstanding the high arching; G and D strings of viola-like depth, but only moderately powerful. £65, 1925.
------------------------------------
Leonhardus Maussiell
me Jecit Nurmberg. An 1736.
------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------
Leonhard Maussiell, Lautten.
und Geigenmacher in Nurnberg, 1720.
----------------------------------------------
Sometimes a written label. Often branded “L.M.” with the Imperial Eagle between.

MAYR, ANDREAS FERDINAND
Born at Vienna. Worked at Salzburg 1720-1764. Maker to the Court of the reigning Archbishop. Made the small violin on which Mozart first practised. High arching of the Stainer ideas, talented and careful workmanship, fairly rich dark red or brown varnish. Belly wood of wide grain, acoustically excellent; one-piece backs of finely flamed material. Hollowish tonal quality, and of that order of mellowness which has no security against an untimely grave. One specimen dated 1727, had 500 dollars placed beside it in an American catalogue, 1921. Violin dated 1764, body length 37.4 cm., upper bouts 16, middle 11.1, lower 19.9.
---------------------------------------
Andreas Ferdinandus Mayr.
Hof Lauten und Geigenmacher
in Salzburg, An 1735.
---------------------------------------
(German lettering)
Sometimes gave his Christian name as Andra. Some labels bear the Archbishopric coat of arms.

MAYSON, WALTER H.
Born at Cheetwood, 1835. Worked at Manchester. Opened a shop in London, 1899, but made only a slight impression. Returned to Manchester, much disappointed. Died 1904. “Polygon” (many angles and sides) was the name he gave to his first workshop in Manchester. Self-taught in violin making, intense enthusiasm carried him forward until he achieved (particularly in the North of England) the success that genius must command. But afler reaching his zenith, his star unaccountably grew less and he died broken hearted. Early productions not particularly distinguished and his reputation was endangered by using a varnish too soft to stand ordinary usage. Scrolls lack grace and he occasionally tripped in the arching, also stumbled over the purfling and the wood he chose was frequently not conductive to the production of the best tone. However, he persevered, found out what was wrong and inappropriate, avoided all points that had previously been open to objection and improved every structural incoherence inside the instruments. Yielded to no undercurrents of speculative experimenting (the bane of many makers), but was wisely content to travel along the road previously made for his guidance by the Cremonese. And thus his later productions attain more artistry. The dignity of the scrolls at once flashes upon us, there is no haziness or uncertainty about the undulating curvatures of the whole model and no want of exactness about the proportions. Beautiful finish of the strong edges and perfect purfling further enhance the workmanship. Somewhat elongated sound-holes but very finely cut. Golden red or an equally rich yellow varnish, very lustrous and transparent, most of it prepared by an artist friend named J. J. E. Wood (resident at Redhill, Surrey). Splendidly full tone, which will become magnificent when the necessary years of playing have matured it. Produced the astounding total of 810 instruments. Varied modelling, some follow the Stradivarian, others resemble the Guarnerian and a few are Amatese. Some ornamented on the back with landscapes, flowers and figures carved in bas relief, attractive as works of art, but of slight value tonally, attributable to the inequality of the thicknessing caused by the carving. Also a large number with elaborately designed scrolls. Each instrument variously and fancifully named.
---------------------------------------
Deus adsit, obsit Mundus
Walter H. Mayson, Manchester.
Fecit Anno 1878.
---------------------------------------
--------------------------
Walter H. Mayson.
Manchester. Fecit. 3
“Panope” x
1903. 2
--------------------------
Other names: -
Alfred the Great,
Arcturus, 1893.
Blea Tarn.
Anemone,
Bianca d’opia,
Convolvulus.
“Cordelia”, one of his finest creations, of which several connoisseurs averred that the “mantle of Stradivarius had permanently settled on the shoulders of Mayson”.
Drusilla, 1903.
Eudocia, Great Heart.
Elepanta,
Ethelberta,
In Memoriam.
Halle, somewhat Stradivarian in outline, not very flat, corners rather extended, broad flamed material for the back, belly wood of medium reed, showing here and there beautiful feathery flashes, noble aristocratic scroll, golden red orange varnish having the prismatic effects of the chameleon and an Italian quality of “singing” tone.
----------------------
In Memoriam
Sir Charles Halle
Obif 1895.
--------------
Walter Mayson.
Fecit Manchester.
----------------------
Isidor,
Kitchener,
Lord Cavendish,
La Tosca,
I will arise,
Lake Fiddle,
Lynette, 1881,
Nautilus, 1889,
Old Windsor,
Moliere,
Omphale, 1895,
Queen Alexandra, 1901,
Portinscale,
Rosa Bonheur,
Sarasate, 1883 (made at Windermere),
Thomas Haviland Burke,
Thirlmere,
Viviette, 1892,
Wastdale,
Strathcona,
Also a ’cello named “Edward VII”, 1901 (very artistic and individualistic). Author of “Violin making” (Strad library) containing all there is to know relative to minute construction, a book much circulated and valued in America. Wrote poems and romances (one titled “The Stolen Fiddle”). £80, 1960.

MEDARD, NICOLAS
Son of Claude. Born at Nancy, 1628. Worked alternatively at Paris and Nancy, 1632-1680. He, with his relative Francois, supplied instruments for the Court orchestra of Louis XIV. These instruments are oil varnished in lightish red. Emblazoned with the Coat of Arms of France and Navarre, together with the monarch’s motto “Nec pluribus impar”. After migration to Nancy he was commissioned by Charles IV (Duke of Lorraine) to make similar violins for his orchestra. These are also oil varnished, and bear the armorial of the Duke and other ornamentations. Thus the Lorraine school of violin making was founded. Though living at Nancy he labelled most of his violins as coming from Paris. Remarkably fine copyist of the Nicolo-Amati small pattern. Sound-holes faithfully reproduced in the most subtle manner. Gorgeously pretty wood. Fine and rich golden-red varnish. Tonal quality silvery and delightful softness but lacks breadth.
Catalogued at £70, 1926. £125, 1960.
--------------------
Nicolas Medard.
à Nancy, 1635.
--------------------
--------------------
Nicolas Medard
Paris, 1641.
--------------------
---------------------
Nicholas Medard
Nancy, 1680.
---------------------

MEDIO FINO - Middling fine.

Cheap violins and ’cellos made at the Thibouville Lamy factory, Mirecourt. Brown or yellow varnish. £10, 1960.

MEIER, KARL
Born 1869. Studied at the violin-making school of Schönbach. Established own workshop, 1889. Produced replicas of the old Italian style, also Tyrolean models. Good wood covered with a spirit varnish. Diploma of merit at the Eger Exhibition, 1897.
-------------------------
Karl Meier, Jun.
Schönbach bei Eger
1893.
-------------------------

MEINEL, FRIEDRICH WILHELM
Son and pupil of Christian Friedrich (1). Born 1737. Died 1802. Worked at Markneukirchen. Modelling quite similar to that of father’s work. Workmanship not particularly refined. Yellow-brown varnish rather effective. Tonal quality apt to be “tubby”. £50, 1960.
----------------------------------
Friedrich Wilhelm Meinel
erfunden von Jacob Steiner
1758
----------------------------------
Branded “Meinel” with crown.

MEINEL, FRITZ
Born 1885. Pupil of Nürnberger. Worked at Markneukirchen, 1918. Most estimable bows which have achieved great popularity. Stamped with name.

MEISEL, CHRISTIAN
“Commercial” instruments specialised by Beare & Sons, London. Stradivarian modelling. Dark reddish varnish. Suitable for elementary students and school classes. Nicely matured wood. Structurally solid.
-----------------------------------
nach
Christian Meisel
Violinmacher in Klingenthal
Anno 1924
-----------------------------------

MEISEL, FRIEDRICH WILHELM
Worked at Klingenthal, 1769-1799. Instruments not to be classed with the best standards emanating from Saxony. Outline and arching conspicuously unattractive. Waist curves unreservedly inartistic. Long sound-holes equally distraught. Varnish appallingly dull. Everything utterly un-Italian, though he, with unblushing effrontery attempted to deceive the credulous public by means of ludicrous and nonsensical Latin that he worked at Cremona.
------------------------------------
Friedrich Wilhelm Meisel
Sitatuari Cremonalis baviebar
Ao 1770
------------------------------------

MEISEL, JOHANN GEORG
Worked at Klingenthal, 1745-1790. Wandered to italy, and returned fully impressed with the Cremona models being superior to any other. Stradivarian outline with flat and medium arching. Some instruments have the principal traits of the Guadagnini minutely imitated. Workmanship not always justified in being termed neat. Excellent wood, often one-piece backs, also one-piece breasts. Yellow shade of varnish occasionally, but mostly light brown, also red-brown, sometimes fairly clear, but other times rather muddy. Tonal quality of ordinary standard, neither especially bright or sweet. £80, 1960.
-----------------------------------
Johann Georg Meisel
Violinmacher in Khingenthal
-----------------------------------
(not dated)

MELLEGARI, MICHELE and PIETRO
Worked at Turin, 1855-1893. Workmanship less refined than that of their brother. Productions generally catalogued at £15. Same label as preceding. £90, 1960.

MELZL, JOHANN GEORG
Worked at Straubing (Bavaria), 1830-1843. Born and trained at Munich. Stradivarian modelling not characterised by superfine workmanship. Reddish-brown varnish slightly in advance of the customary Bavarian. Belly wood of medium grain, and two-piece backs of pretty material. Tonal quality of moderate strength and warmth. ’Cellos of similar modelling and varnish.
----------------------------------
Georg Melz
Saiten-Instrumentenmacher
in Straubing, 1842
----------------------------------
------------------------------------
Joh. Georg Melzl
Guitarren und Geigenmacher
in Straubing, 1831
------------------------------------

MENIGHETTI, MARTINO
Amateur. Work little known.

MENNÉGAND, CHARLES
Born at Nancy 1822. Apprenticed at Mirecourt. Worked with Rambeaux at Paris, 1840-1845, and with Maucotel, 1851. Established at Amsterdam 1852. Settled in Paris 1857. Died at Villers-Cotterets 1885. Medallist at various French exhibitions. Produced many violins, violas, and ’cellos, principally during his residence in Holland. After returning to Paris his activities were so taken up with repairing (at which he won premier place), that his creative work seldom appeared and then generally in the form of ’cellos, which are today particularly estimated and valued at £80. The critical and judicious labour of this eminent maker deserves universal admiration Modelling, notwithstanding the diversity (though he had a preference for the Stradivarian), agrees with respect to that which constitutes the proper essence of design as revealed by the Cremonese. Though having the temerity of making slight variations so that he could not be accused of merely copying, he was not fanatically ambitious to dictate unto himself any originalities that opposed orthodox methods. Neither did he indulge in any chemical propensity, and thus invalidate the integrity of structural laws. Tonal quality establishing the real desideratum in bright sonority. £30, 1925. £85, 1960.
---------------------------------
Mennégand
Luthier, 26 rue de Trévise
Paris, 1867
---------------------------------
----------------------------
C. Mennégand, luthier
26, rue de Trévise
Paris, 1877
----------------------------
Autographed “C. Mennégand”. Some labels state he was a pupil of Rambeaux.

MENNESSON, EMILE
Born st Rheims 1842. Died there 1920. Worked in several ateliers at Paris. Established extensive premises at Mirecourt, 1876-1881. Associated with Martin and Joseph Guarini some years previously, ultimately purchased the trade-marks of that firm, and henceforth built his instruments under the pseudonym of Joseph Guarini. Produced nearly 3,000 of these superior “commercial” instruments, and, for many years, their popularity out-distanced all competitors. Recipient of gold medals and “diplomas d’honneur” at European and American exhibitions. Modelling especially adhering to the Messie Strad. Early specimens with red varnish, later productions with yellow-red on amber ground. £20. Reputed to have been indefatigable in varnish experimenting. £65, 1960.
----------------------------------------------------------
E. M. Joseph Guarini fecit (A)
Anno 1881. No. 1565.
Emile Mennesson, à Reins (Marne)
Seul concessionare pour le France et l’Etranger
déposé.
----------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------
Emile Mennesson, dit Guarini.
E.M. Luthier. A Sainte Cecile à Reims
2 Médailles d’or décoration de l’Ordre Royal
du Christ de Portugal.
Année 1886. No. 1903
-------------------------------------------------------
Later labels have 3 instead of 2 médailles, and is added after Portugal: ‘Reims, Diplôme d’honneur, 1889”. Business carried on by his son Jean, since 1919, and by grandson Raymond, 1926. A report in praise of the violins of Emile was issued at Rheims, 1876, by L. S. Fanart (member of local Academy of Arts, secretary of the Scientific Congress of France, and member of Art Societies in Italy, etc.)

MENZINGER, GUSTAV
Born 1867. Established at Frankfort-on-Main, 1903-1925. Studied and worked at Linz, Berlin, Vienna, Munich, Warsaw, Schwerin and Hamburg. Assisted by son Erich. Instruments illustrating the best conception of design. Every point of workmanship delightfully flawless. Varnish applied by a master hand.
-----------------------------------------
Gustav Menzinger Frankfurt a.M.
Anno 1910 No. 56
-----------------------------------------
(two circles with initials and a cross)

MERCIOLLE, JULES
Born at Mirecourt, 1881. Pupil of Grillon. Perfected his art with G. Bernardel at Paris, 1899, and with Caressa and François. Established own premises, 1911. Modelling inspired by the Stradivarian and Guarnerian. Absolutely faithful reproductions enhanced by irreproachable workmanship. Formulated a marvellous red varnish after long and patient researches, which possesses brilliant transparency and warm suppleness and apparently dissolved with the smallest recourse to chemicals. Tonal quality of very bright sonority and an engaging freedom from newness. Violas and ’cellos structurally perfect. Also built “pupils” violins which have the guarantee of being made entirely by hand.
-------------------------------------------------
Jules Merciolle
Luthier à Paris. 3 rue des Petits-Ecuries
Année 19- No. -
------------------------------------------------
(prominent monogram on the right)

MÉRIOTTE, CHARLES
Worked at Lyons, 1740-1780. Trained at Mirecourt and worked two years at Paris previous to settling at Lyons. Sober and temperate modelling on Stradivarian lines which would spontaneously commend itself but for a slight taint of the commonplace frequently associated with the Mirecourtian style of that early period. Sound-holes not completely avoiding inartistic elements of being too straight and too pointed. Sometimes these ate not accurately placed, thus causing the bridge not to be placed opposite the notches. Scroll not restricted in robustness and sometimes a reduction in physicality would have better suited the contour of those instruments to which he occasionally gave a lighter and more feminine character. He had a profound knowledge of thicknessing. All other inside details punctiliously attended to. Purfling also comparatively without blemish. Belly wood often of very fine grain. Yellow, yellow brown or yellow red shades of thin varnish. Edges and corners appearing slightly prominent through being subjected to a darker tinge than the rest of the instrument. Tonal quality mildly responsive in sustained playing, but dull in rapid passages as well as weak in the high positions. Instruments considerably vary in quality. Specimens dated from 1770 usually catalogued at £25 to £40, earlier examples generally at £18.
---------------------------------------------------
Carolus Mériotte, ab extremo Pontis faxei
Juxta Forum - Argentarium fecit
Lugduni anno 1750.
---------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------
Mvriotte luthier, sur le Pont,
près le change, à Lyon, 1756
------------------------------------

MERLIN, JOSEPH
Worked in London, 1770-1783. Achieved celebrity by playing a violin of his own make on wheel skates at one of Mrs. Cornerlys’ Masquerades at Carlisle House, Soho Square, and impelled himself against a mirror valued at £500, dashed it to atoms, broke his instrument to pieces and wounded himself most severely. Followed the high modelling of Stainer, but with the very full arching nicely graduated and balanced. Instruments enjoying great vogue in fashionable circles of his day. Tyrolean type of sound-holes, short and squat looking. Sometimes assigned an original character to the scroll. Light brown varnish of a velvety suppleness, but also occasionally more like a dirty yellow of inferior quality. Wood well chosen. Workmanship completely satisfactory. Tonal quality small but not especially sweet or warm. Body length, 14.1/16 inches; upper bouts, 6-1/2; lower, 8.1/16; ribs, 1-1/4; top and bottom.
----------------------------------------
Josephus Merlin
Cremonae Emulus
No. 106 Londini 1778
Improved
Queen Ann, No. 66, Street East
Portland Chapel
----------------------------------------

MERLING, PAULI
Born 1894. Worked at Dresden and Oslo. Established at Copenhagen 1921. Won first prize with a medal and four diplomas of honour at The Hague, 1949. Splendid Cremonese and other models, beautifully shaded varnish applied in the French style, golden-red or reddish-brown.
---------------------
Pauli Merling
Violinbygger
Kobenhavn 19. .
---------------------
Also branded “Pauli Merling”.

MERMILLOT, MAURICE
Born in Haute-Savoie (France), 1835. Pupil of Gaillard and J. B. Vuillaume. Went to Piedmont on military service. Worked for Guadagnini at Turin. Established at Paris, 1876. Died at Mirecourt, 1901. Well conceived and sensibly executed outline. Flawlessly worked sound-holes. Scroll of splendid design. Tone falls rather short of the usual French standard. Handsome wood, and liberally supplied. £20 (1925).
--------------------------
M. Mermillot Luthier
18 rue Moret 1898
Paris
--------------------------
Autograph in left-hand corner.

MESSORI, PIETRO
Born 1870. Established at Modena (Italy), 1925. Talented maker and thoroughly conversant with the highest elements of design. Copyist of the Stradivari, Guarneri, and Amati models. Everything of logical exactness, and workmanship well in advance of the average standard. Red, reddish-yellow, and golden shades of a succinous amber varnish. Tonal quality without limitations either in power or warm sonority.
---------------------
Pietro Messori
Modena
fatto l’anno 19. .
---------------------

METHFESSEL, GUSTAVE
Born 1859. Worked at Vienna. Established at Berne (Switzerland), 1864; and later at Hilterfingen nearby. Died 1910. Splendid models after the old masters. Oil varnish suitably accommodated to faithfully represent each particular model.
-------------------------------
Gustave Methfessel fecit
Bernae Anno 18. .
-------------------------------
(slight decorative border)

MEYER, MAGNUS ANDREAS
Worked at Hamburg, 1730-1755. Viols absolutely reminiscent of, and equal to, those of Joachim Tielke. Some specimens artistically decorated with inlay. Violins of rather broad dimensions. Outline not particularly elegant in curvature. Also the disastrous infirmity of weak high arching. Yellow or yellow brown varnish. Not worth more than £10 (1924). Tonal quality hollow and feeble, lower strings weasy, higher strings cloudy. ’Cellos slightly superior, though having pronounced arching without nice graduation, sometimes with fanciful heads.
---------------------------
Magnus Andr. Meyer
Hamburg Ao. 1738
---------------------------
(written)

MEZZADRI, ALESSANDRO
Worked at Ferrara (Italy), 1690-1734. Versatile musician, violinist, organist, and singer. Enjoyed patronage from the nobility of his district. As a violin maker he favoured the Amatese school, with a slight infusion of the Brescian. Consequently, outline and arching are not always ideally harmonised with each other. Dimensions generally on the small side but occasional specimens broader and flatter. His cup of invention was only half filled in delineating the sound-holes since they are placed too far from the ribs and the curvatures are not of free grace. Neither did he expatiate any too easily when engaged with the scroll. Whole contour lacks homogeneity and that discriminative gathering up as it were, of those subservient details which, in features, should automatically belong to the parent thought. In certain places there is a jarring sense of abruptness. Orange red and golden brown shades of varnish. Tonal quality of fine resonance but more delicately feminine than of any masculine virility. £350, 1960.
----------------------------
Alessandro Mezzadri
Fece in Ferrara l’anno
1719
---------------------------
Used two labels, earlier dated having smaller letters than the later.

MICHETTI, PLINIO
Born 1891. Worked at Turin. Won medals at Cremona, 1949. Produced 300 violins up to year 1950. Pressenda and Guarnerian modelling without special distinction, pretty backs and good textured oil varnish, yellow and brownish yellow shades. £125, 1960.
---------------------------------
Plinio Michetti
fece in Torino l’anno 1948
---------------------------------
(with signature)
----------------------
Plinio Michetti
fecit Taurini
anno 1928
Corso Lecce, 82.
---------------------

MILES, GEORGE
Worked at Erith (London). Died 1912. First instruments built on Stainer principles. Quite amateurish. Wood not always well chosen. Some backs have a vertical grain instead of the usual horizontal flame. Straightish sound-holes. Subsequently adopted the French idea of a broad Stradivarius. Nice outcomes of experience and knowledge. Little touches of originality, characterised by modest artistry. Presence of considerable scientific spirit also evident. Good reddishyellow varnish of own preparation, and its application shows clear apprehension. Bold scrolls, and an excellent strong tone. After his death, Dykes and Sons acquired about fifty specimens, put the necessary finishing touches to them, and largely advertised at £18 each.
---------------------
George Miles
Amator
Fecit 1892 No. 3
---------------------
-----------------
George Miles
Erith 1899
-----------------

MILES, RALF
Resident at Stroud, 1929; and Forest of Dean (Glos), 1946. Strad modelling, artistic conceptions, generally one-piece backs, very transparent varnish of various shades. Received laudatory notices from Carrodus and other English violinists. Also violas and ’cellos similarly eulogised.
---------------------------
Ralf Miles
Royal Forest of Dean
Fecit Anno 19. .
---------------------------

MILLANT, BERNARD
Born 1929. Son and pupil of Max. Also studied at Mirecourt. Worked at New York. Returned to Paris.

MILLANT, JEAN JACQUES
Born 1928. Son of Roger. Studied at Mirecourt. Established at Paris, 1951. Industrious bow maker, specimens greatly esteemed by French and Belgian violinists.

MILLANT, ROGER AND MAX
Grandchildren and pupils of S. A. Deroux. Worked together at Paris, 1930. Repairers to the Franco-American Conservatoire at Fontainebleau. Roger born 1901. Max born 1903. Both worked for Dykes in London. Max spent some time with Leon Mougenot at Mirecourt. Guarnerian, Stradivarian, and Guadagnini modelling. The many instruments produced give testimony to the cultured versatility of the makers, violins, violas, and ’cellos. No one who values high earnest thought in workmanship, resulting in a broad, genial, and sympathetic tone will fail to add one specimen to his collection of choice examples. Red, or orange oil varnish.
--------------------------------------
Les Petits Fils de S. A. Deroux
R.M.M. Roger et Max Millant
51, Rue de Rome. Paris.
No. . . . . . Année 19. .
--------------------------------------
-------------------------------
R & M. Millant
Luthiers d’Art
51. Rue de Rome. Paris.
No. Année 19. .
-------------------------------
Won medal at the Cremona Exhibition, 1949, for a splendidly made quartet; also gained a high award at The Hague Competition, 1949.

MILNE, PATRICK GORDON
Born 1873. Worked at Aberdeen. Removed to Glasgow, 1920. Died 1949. Had no regular training but picked up certain ideas from his father, Peter (1835-1912), who occasionally made violins as an amateur. Built first instrument in 16th year. Produced about 70, varying considerably in merit. Early specimens follow the Guarnerius model, usually treated to a spirit varnish. Later examples vastly superior in every detail, belong more to the Stradivarian design. Workmanship scrupulously well finished. Woods of the finest quality and beauty. Oil varnish of effective transparency, light orange, reddish brown and dark red. Tonal quality often meritorious in clarity and strength. Also made violas and ’cellos.
------------------------------
Patrick G. Milne
Maker. Cults. Aberdeen
------------------------------
------------------------------
Patrick G. Milne
Maker
No. 51 Aberdeen 1914
------------------------------
(with thistle design on left)
Also stamped on the ribs at tailpin. Glasgow substituted for Aberdeen after 1920.

MILTON, LOUIS FRANK
Born at Marston, 1898. Pupil of Scholes. Resident at Bedford, 1920. Died 1947. Finely modelled violins, chiefly on Guarnerian ideas. Workmanship equal to any modern, everything accurately graduated. First-class old, seasoned wood. Orange red or red brown varnish. Tonal quality of satisfactory strength, refreshing response and unusually velvety for a new instrument.
-----------------------
Louis F. Milton.
Bedford. England.
No. . . 1924
-----------------------
Sometimes without number or date.

MIQUEL, EMILE
Born 1851. Worked at Mirecourt. Died 1911. Well modelled violins obtained legitimate success extending over 30 years, details carefully wrought. Excellent varnish and a tonal quality of an unusually delicate timbre. Catalogued at 8 to 12 guineas. Also produced bows at a guinea which have considerable analogy with the standard models, quite superior to the many “trade bows” which frequently entrap that portion of the public easily misled by cheap prices. His son (born 1889) was his pupil and successor.

MIREMONT, CLAUDE AUGUSTIN
Born at Mirecourt, 1827. Son and pupil of Sebastien. Worked for Collin Mezin at Mirecourt. Employed by Lafleur and Bernardel at Paris. Established at New York, 1852-1861. Returned to Paris. Died 1887. Remarkable accuracy of detail prevails in all his numerous instruments on no little point in workmanship can be placed the slighest condemnatory mark. Such honest distinctiveness affords pleasant reflections to dwell upon and the verdict of the future will add further approbation. Each instrument made entirely with own hands, thus showing that his mind had that interior apartment of pride in personal completeness, disdaining the customary commercial procedure of his many contemporaries in having several workmen to assist in rapid production. Modelling generally of the Stradivarian and Guarnerian but with noticeably deeper ribs. Occasionally favoured the Klotz and Gagliano forms. Orange red varnish of gratifying aspect, nice constituency, though perhaps too thinly applied. Claimed that the tonal quality was superior to any other of his day. Most people as a rule are not prone to believe in a man being his own trumpeter, for he is only succumbing to the temptation of vanity indulgence but in Miremont’s case he seems to have had every justification for the outspoken and apparently conscientious opinion of his instruments, since at this day we realise that the tone is of such a carrying power and fast developing quality as not to be easily dismissed from the memory. Dealers, too, are naturally aware of this and (in 1925) were offering specimens at £50. Made more ’cellos than violins, many specimens highly valued for their strong yet persuasive sonority of tone. Received higbest awards at Exhibitions, Paris, London and New York. Conceived in 1867, a theory for fixing a second bar to the inside but finding that it failed to impart more tonal vitality he wisely abandoned it. £90, 1960.
----------------------------------------------------
Expositions universelles de 1853-55-62-67
quatre premiers prix.
C. A. Miremont, Breveté S.G.D.G.
Paris, an 1875
----------------------------------------------------
(also bearing his signature)
-----------------------------
C. A. Miremont fecit
Parisiis, Anno Dni 1881
-----------------------------
(with fanciful drawing of instruments, etc.)
Also good orchestral bows stamped “Miremont”.

MÖCKEL, OSWALD
Born 1843. Pupil of Carl Grimm and Christian Adam. Worked at Berlin. Died 1912. Fine modelling after the Cremonese and Brescian, but not without slight modifications and considerable personality. Lustrous oil varnish, usually of reddish shade. Very strongly wooded, consequently maturity of tonal quality will only materialise with the passing of many years. Medallist at Brussels Exhibition, 1910.
--------------------------
Oswald Möckel
fecit Berlin Ao. 1879
--------------------------
(initials double-circled)
-----------------------------
A.D. 1908
Oswald Möckel. Berlin
-----------------------------
(with portrait)
Also constructed many valuable artist bows.

MÖCKEL, OTTO
Born at Berlin, 1869. Son and pupil of Oswald. Gained experience with Carl Grimm. Also attained proficiency in ’cello playing. Worked in London for Richard Brückner, 1890. Returned to Berlin to assist his father, 1892. Opened a workshop at Dresden, 1908. Succeeded to father’s business in the Charlottenburg Quarter of Berlin, 1912. Recognised as the most erudite expert of violin connoisseurship in Germany, 1930. Died 1937. Displayed remarkable expansive knowledge, theoretically and scientifically, in a monthly magazine titled “Die Geige”, 1925. Discovered the fundamentals according to which the old masters worked, on a special theory of plate tuning and thicknessing, and developed many fine toned instruments. Made several experiments in relation to outline and arching, ultimately conceived one having the combined traits of the Maggini and Stradivarius. Somewhat unusual tonal quality has appealed to many German soloists, who have proved their complete endorsement by repeatedly performing the great concertos on them. Most of his Dresden productions are of Guarnerian modelling; reddish varnish.
----------------------------------
Otto Möckel fec Anno 19. .
----------------------------------
(bearing the design of an unstrung violin, a candle and three books, bottom border of little stars)
Author of “The Art of Violin-building” (Leipzig, 1930), history, forms, material, acoustics, measurements of old instruments, scientific principles, repairing, etc. Magnificent and voluminous, over 100 illustrations. Also “The Construction Secret of old Italian Masters - the Golden Ratio in violin-making, and Italian Varnish” (Berlin, 1925).

MOELLER
see MÖLLER.

MOENNIG, WILLIAM
Born in Germany, 1883. Went to U.S.A. Pupil of Julius Guetter, Philadelphia. Produced first instrument 1904. Opened own premises called “Ye olde Fiddle Shop” in that city 1909. Completed about eight violins and one ’cello yearly Modelling after Stradivarius and Guarnerius. Best oil varnish, colour applied to suit the purchaser. Some instruments made of American curly maple and spruce; but the maker has proved that the European woods are superior for tonal quality. Nearly always one-piece backs. Scroll somewhat resembling that of the Guadagnini large pattern. Also good ’cellos and double basses.
----------------------------
William Moennig fecit
Philadelphia anno 19. .
----------------------------
(monogram on left)

MOINEL, CHARLES
Born at Paris, 1866. Pupil of his father (François) and of Germain. Successor of Cherpitel (his uncle), 1893. Retired to Voulangis, 1922, but continued to produce. Died 1945. Sincere artist and excellent maker, left his mark on the art of his country. Beautiful outline and irresistible charm in the arching. General contour of marked originality. Tone unfailingly supplies the wants of a soloist or orchestral player. Reddish brown oil varnish with yellow base.
---------------------------------------------
Charles Moinel
Succr. de E. Cherpitel
Paris, 16 rue du Faubg. Poissonnière
---------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------
Moinel-Cherpitel Luthier
16 Fg Poissonnière, Paris, 1899
---------------------------------------

MOINEL, DANIEL
Born 1901. Son and pupil of Charles. Established own premises at Paris, 1934. Strad and Guarnerian modelling, architectural character of the originals well portrayed. Rich orange or reddish brown varnish.
--------------------------------------
Fait en 1948 par
Daniel Moinel
Luthier 45 Rue de Rome Paris
--------------------------------------
(with signature and design)
Branded inside, also sometimes on bottom rib near tail piece button.

MOITESSIER, LOUIS
Worked at Mirecourt, 1780-1824. Produced a large quantity of instruments, various models, sometimes large and long, also smaller and bulgy looking. Workmanship invariably exhibits such impropriety of discretion and good taste that his violins supply but little interest to modern players. Dark brown (occasionally yellow) varnish throwing a melancholy hue over the whole structure. Made several violins with the belly, back and sides all cut from the same piece of maple wood, but tonal results did not meet with the praise he anticipated. Others have fancy heads. Made a violin having a French military scene painted on the back and inscribed “L’Espoir de la France”. Yellow varnish and small sound-holes. No specimen of his extensive output worth more than £15. ’Cellos usually 74.8 cm body length.
---------------------------------
Ludovicus Moitessier fecit
anno Domini, 1781
---------------------------------
“Moitessier à Paris” or “Moitessier” generally branded inside. Did not work at Paris but adopted the brand for trade purposes.

MÖLLER, MAX (1)
Born at Markneukirchen, 1875. Worked at Berlin, St. Petersburg, and finally at Amsterdam, 1913. Died 1948. Instruments of Stradivarian and Guarnerian modelling, all having structural points worthy of the highest praise. Built for full maturity in posterity. Varnish of own preparation, received recognition from a wide circle of connoisseurs.
----------------------
Max Möller
Amsterdam, 1914
----------------------
(written and printed)
------------------------
Max Möller
P. C. Hoofstraat 34
Amsterdam
------------------------
(printed with date and monogram)
Produced 250 violins, violas and ’cellos. Also bows that hold themselves far aloof from general merchandise. Author (in collaboration with son), of “Italiaansche Vioolbouw” (Amsterdam, 1938).

MÖLLER, MAX (2)
Born 1915. Son of preceding. Studied at Mittenwald. Worked for Enel (Paris) and for Sacconi (New York). Subsequently returned to father’s place. Considered a great expert. President of Dutch Group of Violin Makers. Four or five violins produced yearly. Also especially fine violas of individualistic modelling. Was a member of the Expert Committee of the Stradivari Exhibition in Cremona 1937, and since then, either member of the Jury or winner of highest award in all international violin-making competitions (the Hague 1949; Cremona 1949; Rome 1952; Festival of Britain 1951; Liege 1954 and 1957; Italy 1959). Published “The Violinmakers of the Low Countries” (1955), and numerous articles on violin-making in “Violins and Violinists” (Chicago) and other magazines and papers.
----------------------
Max Möller
Junior
Amsterdam 1949
----------------------
(with monogram)
-----------------------------
Max Möllter filius
Amsterdam 1937, op 2-
-----------------------------
(written)
-------------
Max 1950
M. o. ller
-------------
(printed, with date hand-written)

MONK, JOHN KING
Born 1846. Worked at Merton (Surrey). Splendid Stradivarian modelling, always excellent material, lustrous oil varnish (pale yellow to deep golden-red) of fine quality. Introduced a “Maggini bass bar system”, and a “triple-bar arrangement” (ordinary bass bar reduced in length and thickness, and two smaller bars, one on either side, added). Only a few of his instruments have these suspicious innovations (designed for eliminating inequality of certain notes), the remainder of his fairly prolific output are built on orthodox lines.
----------------------------
J. K. Monk
Maker
Merton. Surrey. S.W.
No. 70 1889
----------------------------

MÖNNIG, AUGUST HERMANN
Worked at Markneukirchen, 1875-1927. Son Johann continued the business. Splendid artist bows for violin and ’cello.

MÖNNIG, FRITZ
Born 1890. Worked at Kiel, Hamburg, and Berlin. Established at Markneukirchen 1912. Splendid copies of standard models which have ingratiated themselves into considerable favour in several countries.

MONTIERO, HENRIQUEZ
Worked at Lisbon, 1889. Died 1910. Few violins but greater productivity of guitars.

MONTERUMICI, ARMANDO
Born at Vedrana, 1875. Pupil of R. Fiorini. Worked at Bologna, 1907-1925. Rose to a most adequate sense of his responsibilities, and with an array of technical appliances, worked up magnificent expositions of artistry and beauty. Stradivarian outline with Guarnerian sound-holes. Also splendid ’cellos.
----------------------------
Armando Monterumici
Votogna. Anno 19-
----------------------------

MONTEVECCHI, LUIGI
Born at Cesena (Italy), 1868. Cabinet-maker. Violins recall the Cremonese, but have personal touch. Elegant form. Conscientious workmanship, accurate in every detail, especially inside. Brilliant and fine quality varnish (secret process).

MOORE, ALFRED
Worked at Isle of Man, 1800. Violins, violas and ’cellos. Very conscientious worker. Mainly Strad modelling, very nice varnish. Reported that Haydn Wood owned one of his violins.

MORARA, PAUL
Born 1889. Artist-painter, sculptor, and ’cellist. Studied violin construction with G. Fiorini. Resident at Budrio (near Bologna). Won bronze medal at Cremona, 1949. Some ’cellos have received laudatory notices from orchestral players at Bologna. £80, 1960.
-----------------------------------------
+ Pautus Morara fil. Stanistai
JNP Josephi Fiorini Disciputus
fecit Butrium An. D. 1949
-----------------------------------------

MORETTI, EGIDIO
Born at Udine 1894. Cabinet maker. Worked at Lavagna (Genoa). Cremonese modelling, good designs and excellent workmanship. Varnish with soft resinous base, yellow-brown or reddish-yellow, very transparent.
----------------------
Costruttore
Moretti Egidio
Udine anno 1924
----------------------
---------------------------------
Moretti Egidio - Udinese
fece in Lavagna anno 1949
---------------------------------

MORITZ, ALFRED
Head of a factory at Dresden, 1880-1900. Had agencies in London, and superbly yellow-varnished violins (priced 3 to 5 guineas) were immensely popular for many years.
------------------------------------
Copy of Antonius Straduarius
Fecit Dresdae. Anno 1889
Expecially made for -
------------------------------------
With the word “Excelsior”, and monogram double-circled. On third line appeared the name of a particular trader or local player. Sometimes the same advertising process was engraved on rear of scroll.

MORIZOT, LOUIS
Atelier at Mirecourt, 1925. Assisted by five sons. Presented magnificent handmade bows. Admired by artists, connoisseurs, and amateurs. Made of rich material and very artistically mounted. A maker who has consecrated his activities to the highest artistry. Obtained highest award at the Exposition Artisanale, Paris, 1927. £10-£15 & £25, 1960.

MORIZOT, RENÉ
Born at Mirecourt, 1917. Sixth son of Louis. Pupil of Audinot. Strad and Guarnerian modelling, impeccable workmanship and attractive varnish.

MORLOT, NICOLAS
Born at Mirecourt 1780. Pupil of Nicolas ainé. Died 1856. Emanations from a Mirecourt firm 1860-1900. Very broad model, well proportioned, but slightly heavy in character. Very flat arching, broad across the waist. Backs often ornamented with designs representing mythological subjects. Dullish yellow or dark brown varnish. Loud tone, totally unsympathetic. Similar to the Didier Nicolas school. Branded in triangular fashion inside on the back, “A la ville de Cremonae Nicolas Morlot”. £75, 1960.

MORRISON, ARCHIBALD
Born at Falkirk 1820. Went to Glasgow 1837. Became known as a brilliant strathspey-player, and organised a special band for dances. Died 1895. Instruments date from 1854. Worked for John Mann 1860. Established own workshop 1865. Early specimens either Amatese or Stradivarian, later ones exclusively Guarnerian. Designs pot especially artistic, nor workmanship without little blemishes. Dullish varnish, ordinary woods, strongish tone, suitable for ballrooms.
----------------------------
Archibald Morrison
Maker. Glasgow. 1873
----------------------------

MORRISON, JOHN
Born 1760. First worked in Princes Street, Soho. Moved to Shadwell, 1819. Subsequently in Little Turnstile Holborn. Died 1827. Majority of instruments made for dealers. Workmanship generally haphazard. Some violins have edges inlaid with mother-o’-pearl. Chocolate-brown or reddish varnish, both of common appearance. Made a few superior ’cellos, priced at £25 (1920) on account of a responsively full tone, Strad model. Some instruments bearing his name have come from German factories.
----------------------------
Jhn Morrison, London
made 1798
----------------------------

MORTIN, LÉON
Worked at Mirecourt. Successor to Darte and Cunin, 1891. Stradivarian modelling, reddish-chestnut varnish.
-----------------------------------------------------
Ancienne Maison Vuillaume Darte et Cunin
Léon Mortin. Luthier
No. . . . Mirecourt, 1904
-----------------------------------------------------

MORTIMER, J. W.
Born at Gomersal (near Leeds), 1857. Resident at Cardiff 1890-1926. Violins, violas and ’cellos, usually of small form, amber varnish of own formulae, clear and penetrating tone. Had greater reputation for very excellent double-basses.
-----------------------------
John William Mortimer
Maker. Cardiff. 19 . .
-----------------------------

MOSHER, A.
Born at Owasso (Mich.) Established at Calcium (N.Y.) Amatese and Guarnerian modelling, varnish of own formula - an oily spirit, various shades from yellow to brown tinted with red. Claimed to have discovered a filler which undeniably quickens maturity of tone.
------------------------
Alex. H. Mosher
Calcium N.Y. 1926
------------------------

MOUGENOT, GEORGES
Born at Mirecourt, 1843. Apprenticed to Deroux. Worked for Darche at Aix-la-Chapelle, 1864. Lived at Liege, 1867. Succeeded to the business of N. F. Vuillaume at Brussels, 1875. Died in 95th year, 1937. Superb modelling, Stradivarian and Guarnerian, delightful avoidance of any coquetting with those perfect designs. Idiosyncrasies of the two different types of sound-holes very cleverly realised. Particularly elegant scrolls, felicitous in refined carving, bold without stiffness, and altogether impressive. Magnificently tonal belly wood scrupulously chosen for its thin grain, backs of the richest material. Brown-red varnish for the Strad copies, golden-red for the Guarnerius, both of a beautiful oil preparation, transparent and full of life. Gold medals at Paris (1878), Amsterdam (1883), and Antwerp (1885 and 1894). ’Cellos of the same noble forms and varnish. Occasionally copied the Maggini violin of De Bériot. Built two specimens for the Amsterdam Exhibition, having the portraits of Mozart and Beethoven painted on embedded ivory at the lower part of the back. Another violin had an inlaid design of the Amsterdam coat-of-arms. £125, 1960.
---------------------------------------------
G.M.
Georges Mougenot, luthier du/
Conservatoire Royal, Bruxelles 1899
---------------------------------------------
------------------------
Georges Mougenot
Bruxehles 1898
------------------------
(written)
Also bearing signature etc. across and at the foot. Some instruments branded inside.
------------------------------------------------
Copie du Roi Joseph par
Georges Mougenot luthier du
Conservatoire Royal de Bruxelles 1900
------------------------------------------------
Label of instruments made by his assistants:
----------------------------------
G.M.
-------
Rue Saint Jean 47 Bruxelles
----------------------------------
“Made in Belgium” either above or below. Invented a bridge of “double pressure” for augmenting sonority of third string.

MOUGENOT, LÉON
Born 1874. Pupil of the preceding. Worked for Blanchard at Lyons, Jombar at Paris, and Hill and Sons, London. Established at Mirecourt, 1899, where he had scores of pupils. Exact imitations of the Stradivarius, Guarnerius, Vuillaume and Lupot. Superfine workmanship, guaranteed hand done. Also models not varnished to have the appearance of age. Remarkable for transparent varnish of warm aspect, various shades, notably a golden-red, and a soft crinkly mottled brown. Veritable art productions, sonorously clear tone, all for £8. £60, 1960.
--------------------------------------
Léon Mougenot
No. . . . Mirecourt, année 19. .
--------------------------------------
In addition to the brand mark L + M within, is also the maker’s signature.
----------------------------------------
Léon Mougenot-Gauche
ex-ouvrier des les. Maisons de
Bruxelles, Lyon, Paris, Londres.
----------------------------------------

MOUGIL. (MOUGEL)
Possibly of Mirecourtian manufacture (1800), solidly constructed, relatively unimportant inaccuracies, ordinary workmanship, large bottom curves of sound-holes, one-piece back, light brown varnish.
Branded in block letters:
--------------------------------
A LA VILLE DE TURIN
Mougil
--------------------------------

MOYA, HIDALGO
Trained at Mirecourt. Resident at Leicester. Stricken with a paralytic seizure of left arm and side, 1920. Went to California for two years - had another attack which affected the right side and throat. Died 1927. A sad curtailment at the zenith of career. Two models - Strad (1715) and Guarnerius (1737). Magnificent scroll carving. Purfiing of a delicacy and neatness surpassed by no other maker, ancient or modern. Made many experiments with varnish, especially directed to the solving of the problem of how to obtain a suitable tegument which should not spoil or in any way affect the tone already developed in the white violin. Method of procedure: firstly the wood was treated with a clear yellow stain, quite innocuous to the wood, and of a beautiful tint. Upon this yellow ground was laid the first coat of varnish (an oil preparation containing no colouring matter). The colour, a clear oil-pigment of various tints, was then applied. Three or four coats of the clear varnish were then laid on, and the rubbing down was in due course carried out in the customary manner. This all resulting in an appearance of transcendental splendour.
---------------------------------------------------------
Ad Modurn Joseph Guarnerius I.H.S. Cremona
Hidalgo Moya ad Gloriam Dei fecit
anno Domini 1918
---------------------------------------------------------
(with signature and monogram)
Other labels have Stradivarius on first line.
Author (in collaboration with Towry Piper) of “Violin Tone and Violin Makers” (Chatto & Windus, London) - very sensible remarks, original ideas, appealing to a player’s sensitiveness rather than to the academical knowledge of experts. Towry Piper (born 1859, died 1925), solicitor, amateur violinist, and a particularly expert connoisseur. Contributed very knowledgeable articles to the Strad Journal, 1911-1925.

MOZZANI. LUIGI
Born at Faenza, 1869. Played the oboe in various orchestras. Was a guitar virtuoso, 1900. Created astonishment with mandoline-tremolando effects done by finger nails. Went to Cento (Northern Italy), 1910. Set up an atelier for guitar making. Gradually expanded the business, and added bowed instruments to his activities. 1917. Resident at Bologna, 1927. Died 1943. Produced fine concert guitars on the Guadagnini principles. Also lyra-guitars in the style of the Schenk. Violins and ’cellos of far less consequence. They have all the characteristics belonging to what is usually known as trade instruments, some quite mediocre. Unprepossesing outline, flat shoulders, wide ribs, sound-holes utterly at variance with naturalness, exaggerated dipping at the front of scroll, very red varnish of common aspect, and strongly wooded. £80, 1960.
-------------------------------------
Liuteria Italiana Luigi Mozzani
Cento Anno 1920
-------------------------------------
(design of a lyre in centre)

MÜLLER, JOSEF
Born 1850. Flautist, well-known in Bohemia, making brass and stringed instruments. Established own place, 1873, and soon had the assistance of several workmen. All kinds of instruments came from his rapidly expanding premises, but he specially attended to the violin department. Produced good copies of a Strad, Guarnerius or Stainer, at a guinea each. Experimented in varnish for tonal improvement also patented violins and ’cellos with double plates, won nine medals for the carrying power and roundness of tone. Sometimes used new pine wood, soaked it in flowing water in ordlr to fix or reserve the resin, thus the soft parts and the fibrous matter were united to a solid mass so that the whole plate vibrated uniformly. Also tried the process of soaking the top plate (for about four weeks) in lime water frequently renewed then dried in the air and sunlight. ’Cellos thus treated had a tone of extreme softness and purity. £80, 1960.
--------------------------------------------------
Josef Müller. Schonbach b. Eger i Böhm:
K.K. ausschl: privilegierte
Musikinstrumenten & Saiten Fabrikation
--------------------------------------------------
Made serviceable pernambuco bows, various models. Firm carried on by his successor, Andreas Müller, 1925.

MÜLLER, KARL
Born 1893. Established at Markneukirchen, 1925. Excellent modelling of the Cremonese. Also lutes and guitars.
-----------------------------------
Karl Müller
Markneukirchen, anno 1948
Copy of Jof, Guarnerius
-----------------------------------
(two monograms circled)

MUMBY, ERNEST
Born 1888. Resident at Tottenham. Pupil of Whitmarsh. Good modelling with originalities in dimensions and scroll. Carefully chosen woods. Splendid tone.
-------------------
Ernest Mumby
London 1929
-------------------

MUNCHER, ROMEDEO
Born 1874. Pupil of Enrico Ceruti. Worked at Cremona. Died 1940. Smallish model of considerable originality, symmetrically and compactly made. Scroll delicately moulded and well rounded - graceful yet dignified. Attractive sound-holes. Chestnut-red or yellow transparent varnish. Also made many replicas of old Italian types. Several cellos and double basses. £150, 1960.
----------------------------------
Romedeo Muncher
di Cremona fece anno 1925
----------------------------------
(with signature)

MUSCHIETTI, UMBERTO
Descendant of noble family. Born at Portogruaro (Venezia), 1875. Double-bass player of renown who concertised on a fine Santaguliana. Generally resident at Udine from 1918. Produced, up to year 1948, 160 violins, 18 violas, 8 ’cellos, and 2 double-basses. Won medals at Fiume, Rome, Padua, and Florence. Magnificent 5-stringed double-bass preserved at the Stradivari Museum, Cremona, a replica of his Santaguiliana. £165, 1960.
-------------------------
Umberto Muschietti
-------------------------
(facsimile of signature)
Assisted by son Renzo (likewise a double-bass player) who has won several diplomas for personal construction of violins and ’cellos.

MUTTI, VITTORIO
Born 1903. Resident at Castiglione (Mantua). First series of violins on theoretical principles opposed to the normal - one specimen having back and sides of one piece of wood, another had a bass bar of the same wood as that of back, and was applied to that part instead of being attached to belly. Subsequently studied with Schiavi and adopted classical methods. Produced 100 up to year 1949. Some have painted purfling. Excellent outline with arching (though fairly high) of proportionate elevation. Transparent varnish of walnut shade.
------------------------------
Autore Mutti Vittorio
Castiglione delle Stiviere
Mantova 1949
Violino 93
-----------------------------
(written)