SACCANI, BENIGNO
Worked at Milan, 1908-1912. Instruments exhibited at the Brussels Exhibition, 1910. Outline and arching not assuming a too-obvious licence in originality, workmanship flawless. Oil or spirit varnish of yellow shade, slightly less satisfying £25 (1920).

SACCONI, FERNANDO
Born at Rome, 1895. Pupil of Rossi. Maker to the San Cecilia Academy in that city, 1925. Resident at New York, 1931. Splendid Stradivarian designs, also one of his own. Yellowish orange or reddish brown oil varnish. Eulogised by Arrigo Serati and other virtuosi.
-----------------------------
Fernando Sacconi
fece, Roma. Anno 1925
-----------------------------
Branded “Fernando Sacconi, Roma” under tail-pin. Made 60 violins, 15 violas and 25 ’cellos up to year 1942. Won gold medal for Quartet, 1937.
-------------------------------------
Simone Fernando Sacconi
fece in New York anno 1947
-------------------------------------
(S.F.S. in circle)

SALF
Worked at Mirecourt, 1850. Shop sign, A la Ville de Venise.
--------------------------------
Salf, à Mirecourt (Vosges)
--------------------------------
Sometimes branded - “A la Ville de Venise Salf à Mirecourt”.

SALF
Worked at Toulon, 1908.

SALOMON
Worked at Reims, 1740-1775. Violins of good style, also a few beautifully designed viol d’amours.
-----------------------
Fait à Reims
Par Salomon 1755
-----------------------

SALOMON, JEAN BAPTISTE DESHAYES
Worked at Paris, 1730-1771. Dean of the Violin Maker’s Guild, 1760. Workshop sign: “A Sainte Cecile”. Variable in design and workmanship. Early instruments generally somewhat Amatese in outline with the Boquay medium arching. Execution of scrolls, sound-holes and other details incomparably superior to those of his later instruments, though in no instance reaching a particular high standard of refinement. Later instruments of broader and flatter arching, sometimes reminiscent of Chappuy, others more or less original, but mostly of carelessly conceived design and workmanship often mediocre. Some instruments fashioned with medium arching while the backs are prone to flatness. Others have the arching carried almost to the edges. Sound-holes of several styles almost invariably placed too far apart for any captivation of the eye. Usually acquitted himself better when engaged on the scroll, and often nicely figured material. Purfling never really cleanly and neatly done. Some instruments plentifully wooded, others just the reverse. Not particularly careful in his choice of materials, perhaps excepting a few specimens. Belly wood sometimes of medium grain at top and bottom, grading to and from fine vein at the centre; also specimens of hard material which gives the tone an unsympathetic quality. Wood for backs frequently of indistinct or nonuniform flame, although some examples are furnished with more handsomely figured material. Some instances known where the flame at the upper part of the back has an upward gradient, but at the centre and lower part faulty growth causes this flame to be straight across. One instrument has been preserved at Paris which has transverse instead of the usual horizontal joining, the upper portion having the figure of the material going north to south, while the lower is from west to east. Remarkable as a curiosity, equally remarkable for foolishness. Texture of varnish also varies, the best being the rather soft reddish brown on early productions. Others have a light golden brown, less supple, or a yellow (obviously spirit) quite cold looking and resinous. Tonal quality naturally varies with the inequalities enumerated. One notable exception in America (dated 1765), said to be of wondrous tone, and realised 500 dollars. Violas usually body length of 15 inches, well set forth, and often an advance upon the violins. Generally broad and fairly flat modelling of small figure material for backs and golden brown varnish. Stepped to his greatest heights in a few of his ’cellos, instruments most anatomically accurate, rather large size, well varnished and have a tone not better producible from any antecedent French instrument. Others of smaller proportions correspondingly less meritorious in material, workmanship and tone. Several viol-d’amours with especially well carved heads of different fancies. Also produce harps. £85 to 125; ’cellos, £150, 1960.
------------------
Du Salomon
de Paris, 1740
------------------
-----------
Salomon
1742
-----------
-------------------------------------
Salomon, Luthier à Ste Cécile
Place de l’Ecole à Pqris, 1741
-------------------------------------
(Large italic lettering with design of a person plucking a lute-like instrument held in right hand, plucked with left)
----------------------------------
Parisiis
apud Salomonen ad insigne
Ste Caceilia Scolie Palatio
1754
----------------------------------
(sometimes three lined)
----------------------------------
Salomon
Maitre Luthier à Paris, Rue
l’Arbre -sec a Ste Cecile
----------------------------------
(decorative border)
Branded in square lettering near the button on the back: “Salomon” or “Salomon a Paris”. Business after death, 1771, carried on by widow until 1788.

SALVADORI, GIUSEPPE
Worked at Pistoja (Italy), 1860-1869. Pleasing outline, proportions slightly under full size. Mediocre workmanship. Sound-holes too near the middle curve, also too slanting, wide in centre of stem and deep ugly notches. Scroll absurdly small, indifferently cut and not creditably posed. Light yellow or yellow with a tinge of red shades of varnish. Tonal quality quite impoverished, very little power and certainly no sonority or mellowness. £15. Violas of 16-1/2-inch body length. Also guitars and mandolines. £75, 1960.
------------------------
Giuseppe Salvadori
in Pistoja 1863
------------------------
(italic lettering - sometimes written)

SALZARD, FRANÇOIS
Born at Mirecourt, 1808. Died 1874. Son and pupil of D. Worked at native place from 1836; and later at Paris. Usual Mirecourtian style of Stradivarian modelling. Constructively excellent and well wooded with pretty material. Orange red and yellow brown shades of varnish. Strong and brilliant tone. £30.
---------------------
François Salzard
---------------------
(decorative border)
Full name also branded.

SANDNER, ANTON
Established at Aussig-on-Elbe (Bohemia) 1922. Expert maker of lutes, guitars, violins, and ’cellos. Author of “The Soul (sound-post) of a Violin”.
----------------------------
Anton Sander
A+S Geigenbaumeister
Aussig a/E
A S
19. .
----------------------------
(with design of his book)

SANNINO, VICENZO
Born at Naples 1879. Worked there until 1914. Established at Rome 1925. Stradivarian and Guarnerian modelling. Also exact imitations of a Gagliano. Golden red and golden yellow shades of varnish. Built 700 violins, 50 violas, and 80 ’cellos up to year 1949. Favourable examples of style propriety and splendid tonal sonority. £125, 1960.
-------------------------------
Vincenzo Sannino
fece in Napoli anno 1905
-------------------------------
(with cross and initials)

SANTAGIULIANA, GIACINTO
Worked at Vicenza 1770-1820, and at Venice 1820 to death, 1830. Modelling more properly belongs to his own style, seldom partaking of any marked characteristics of others. Of good size, and generally rather fully developed arching, some of the later dated being flatter. Instruments considerably varying in excellence of design and tone. Best specimens catalogued at £70 (1929). Brown tinted shade of varnish often intense in its depth and brilliancy. £250, 1960.
-----------------------------
Jacintus Santagiuliana
fecit Venetia anno 1830
-----------------------------
---------------------------------
Jacintus Santagiuliana fecit
Vicetiae. Anno 1815
---------------------------------
(decorative border)

SARTORY, EUGÈNE
Born at Mirecourt, 1871. Pupil of his father; worked for Peccatte in Paris before 18th year; and for Lamy several years. Ultimately opened own workshop at Paris. Recipient of medals and diplomas at Brussels, 1887, Lyons, 1894, Liége, 1905, Milan, 1906 and London, 1908. Decorated “Officier d’Académie” Paris. Died 1946. Bows universally admired. Appearance brings up memories of a Voirin bow, though the head is less refined. Some have beautiful mother-o’pearl saddles. Often beautifully balanced sticks of pernambuco, but others occasionally too heavy for soloists. All orchestral players greatly admire his productions. Branded “Sartory” in usual place, also underneath. £25 to £50 GM, 1960.

SAUNDERS, WILFRED G.
Established at Nottingham. Violins and violas. Fine craftsman held in much esteem by English players. Still working, 1960.

SCARAMPELLA, GILISEPPE
Son and pupil of Paulo. Born at Brescia, 1838. Apprenticed to Nicola Bianchi at Paris, 1865. Assistant in workshop of Luigi Castellini at Florence, 1866. Succeeded Castellini as instrument keeper at the Istituto Musicale, where is preserved several Strads, etc. Actively employed and enjoying the finest of reputations, 1900. Produced magnificently modelled instroments after the principles of Stradivarius and Guarnerius, but not slavish imitations, sometimes with arching slightly fuller than either. Workmanship commands all admiration for exquisite finish. Sound-holes frequently of unusual length. Finest woods, acoustical and handsome. Delightfully flexible varnish of shades varying from red to golden. Brilliant and powerful tonal quality, creating visions and dreams of a glorious future maturity. £50 (1925). Violas and ’cellos equally fine. £175, 1960.
---------------------------------
Giuseppe Scarampella
fece in Firenze, anno 1889
---------------------------------
Branded “Giuseppe Scarampella” on the interior, also on or below button.
*
*Firenze *
*

SCARAMPELLA, STEFANO
Born at Brescia, 1843. Brother and pupil of Giuseppe. Settled at Mantua. Died 1924. Varied modelling but mostly Stradivarian. Some reminiscent of Balestrieri, others with measurements slightly under normal. Prolific productivity. Workmanship cannot boast of great refinement. Scroll often treated as a very secondary affair. Reddish brown varnish singularly deficient in suppleness. Tonal quality rather responsive but never very powerful or particularly sweet. £60 (1925). £150, 1960.
-----------------------------------------
Stefano Scarampella di Brescia
premiato con medaglie d’argente
fratello ed allievo del Giuseppe
fece in Brescia. anno 1900
-----------------------------------------
(decorative border)
------------------------------------------
S.S. Stefano Scarampella Fratello
ed Allievo di Giuseppe
fecit in Mantova - Anno
-------------------------------------------

SCHÄFFNER, MAX
Born at Markneukirchen, 1870. Worked there until 1906, then at Hamburg. Enjoying all prosperity, 1925. Studied at Leipzig and Nürnberg. Produced impressively designed violins. Uniting many of the qualities one can desire in a modern instrument. Beautiful varnish specially prepared and treated by various “re-agents”. Also finely constructed bows stamped “Schäffner”. £80, 1960. Bows, £10.

SCHETELIG, ERNST
Born at Markneukirchen, 1864. Pupil of Paulus. Worked until 1943.

SCHEVERLE, JOHANN
Born at Augsburg. Worked at Prague, 1750-1769. Lute virtuoso. Wrote compositions for the instruments. Studied the art of construction under Hellmer. Produced a few violins, violas, and ’cellos. Outline of infinite nicety, truly belonging to the Prague school. Beautifully graduated medium arching. Accuracy of proportions fully maintained. Chestnut-brown varnish of pure substantiality. Tonal quality of moderate power and sweetness. £70, 1960.
-----------------------------
Joannes Scheverle fecit
Pragae, An. 17. .
-----------------------------
Different spellings of name - Schäferle, Schefferle, and Schewerle.

SCHILBACH, O. A.
Born at Schöneck (Saxony), 1862. Pupil of E. W. Neumärker. Worked at birthplace, 1880; and at New York, 1887-1937. Died 1947. Not prolific, but good, 25 violins, 6 violas, and 2 ’cellos, Stradivarian modelling, brilliant red-brown varnish. Renowned for repairing, all eminent artists visited his shop.
--------------------------------
Oswald Anton Schilbach
fecit New York anno 19. .
--------------------------------
(initials double-circled)
Succeeded by son Anton Oswald (born 1893).

SCHLOSSER, HERMANN
Worked at Erlbach, 1865-1902.
---------------------------
Hermann Schlosser
Geigenmacher
in Erlbach
Gesetzlich Gesehützt
---------------------------
Also bows stamped with his name. £8 to £12 (1960).

SCHMIDT, C. H. C.
Viol-da-gamba in the Bach Museum at Eisenach.
-------------------------------------
C. H. C. Schmidt
Luthier zu Würzbach en 1830
-------------------------------------

SCHMIDT, ERNST REINHOLD
Born at Markneukirchen, 1857. Apprenticed to Julius Kretzschman, 1871-1874. Worked for Bausch, and Hammig at Leipzig; also for Riechers at Berlin. Built several new instruments during this period and repaired hundreds. Returned to Markneukirchen 1880, established his own workshop, and subsequently built a factory, assisted by his sons and a large staff of workmen. Won gold medals at Vienna and Leipzig, 1892 and 1913. Died 1928. Funeral attended with great pomp.
Various grades of “commercial” instruments known by the generic title of “Schmidt’s Standard”. Artistic modelling and workmanship together with reasonable prices caused the instrurhents to be universally distributed. Most careful selection of wood for its acoustical properties; accurately proportioned and capitally finished in every detail. Constructed violins to any specifications submitted by various dealers. Spirit and oil varnishes according to grade. “Artist-violins” and “solo-violins” made entirely by his own hands. Grand-Amati patterns, orange-brown varnish, and pretty wood. Fine copies of a Guarnerius, with orange-red varnish. Artistic replicas of a Stradivarius, with a soft golden-brown varnish. Cheaper grade violins generally of a glossy yellow spirit varnish. £25 to £65, 1960.
------------------------------------------------------------------
Antonius Stradivarius
made by E. R. Schmidt & Co. Violin Makers, Saxony
only genuine when bearing our written signature.
E. R. Schmidt.
------------------------------------------------------------------
Monogram on back button. Number of instrument, 972, stamped at the top of the neck. Similar labels bearing other Cremonese names. Inventor of several little appliances connected with stringed instruments. Also bows of various grades and imitations. £6 to £12, 1960.

SCHMITT, LUCIAN
Born at Julien-en-Genevois, 1892. Studied the violin at Geneva Conservatoire and carried off first prize for solo playing. Subsequently attacked with enthusiasm the constructive art and went to Mirecourt where he spent two years in the atelier of Mougenot-Jacquet-Gand, and was initiated in bow making by Bazin. Worked for Vidoudez at Geneva, and never ceased to express his gratitude for all he learnt in restoration from that very conscientious man. Employed by Lorange at Lyons, by Madame Bovis at Nice, and by Caressa and Français at Paris. Established at Grenoble, 1922. Resident at Meylan (near Grenoble), 1941. Conceived three designs of considerable originality. One maintaining the Amati outline, designated “modele normal” but of independent character in all other details. The second, inspired by the Guarnerius in outline and titled “modele de Soliste”, is not so long as the Amatese but of slightly larger proportions in every other way. This model has a remarkably puissant sonority of tone, further characterised by a peculiar penetrativeness, smoothness and clarity. Body length, 35.8 cm. Arching nicely elevated towards the centre, and the part between the waist curves given greater breadth than is customary with the Guarnerius. Ribs rather shallow, upper 27.5 mm.; lower 29. Backs always of one piece. Sound-holes of transcendental grace, uniquely personal, beautiful curvature, stem of artistic width, remarkable parallelism in the cutting of the upper and lower wings (the straight turn down of the upper and the nearly straight turn up of the lower, affording strong contrast to the superb roundness surrounding the top and bottom apertures). The third (baptised “Mieulx ne Scay”), is very individualistic, perfect workmanship and magnificent tone. £50 to £100, 1960.
---------------------------------
Lucien Schmitt
Luthier à Grenoble - 1929
---------------------------------
(L.S.G. and a violin scroll forming a monogram)
Utilised in two ways:
(1) printed entirely black for Normal Models;
(2) in red and black for specially selected Solo violins.
The latter arrayed with a gloriously brilliant varnish of own formula, golden red shade and plentifully applied. Also bearing his signature, branded with monogram in the interior under the button and fingerboard, and the mortise of the peg box.
Also larger labels of artistic design-
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
1949. No. 120
Instrument dessin
et entièrement Lvcien Schmitt Violonier d’Art
exècuté par à Grenoble.
Mielx ne Scay
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Branded “L.S.” surrounded by a large G.

SCHOLL, HERMANN
Worked at Grenoble (France), 1911-1930. Violins, violas, quintons, ’cellos and double basses. Various models: Strad, Guarnerius, Amati and Stainer, but not replicas. Superb workmanship and varnish. Claimed to have made deep and patient researches in thicknessing, etc., and that every instrument had complete homogeneity of the four strings. Also that some had the “timbre” of a flute, oboe or clarinet (which to us is impossible).

SCHÖNFELDER, HERBERT EMIL
Born 1898. Brother and pupil of above. Worked at Hannover, 1930. Good copies of ancient models.

SCHÖNFELDER, JOHANN GEORG (1)
Born 1653. Son of Johann. Exiled from Graslitz. Worked at Markneukirchen from 1677. Died 1722. Posed as living at Cremona.
--------------------------------------
Joannes Georgius Schönfelder
probe Violino in Cremona
1712.
--------------------------------------
Also branded I*G*S inside on back.

SCHÖNFELDER, JOHANN GEORG (2)
Born 1750. Died 1824. Worked at Markneukirchen, but not at Cremona. Undoubtedly the most skilful craftsman of this family. Model of splendidly large dimensions, outline distinctively pleasing; beautiful arching of slight rise. Scroll and sound-holes quite attractive. Bellies often of one piece, backs of handsome flame. Varnish either of golden yellow or a darker orange shade, very seldom applied the brown associated with the other members. Tonal quality of reliable freshness and fair smoothness.
------------------------------------
Iohann Georg Schoenfelder
Lauten und Geigenmacher in
Neukirchen bey Adorf 1794
------------------------------------
----------------------------------------
Johann Georg Schoenfelder
Probe Violino Coresp: Cremona
Fecit 17-
----------------------------------------
Also branded “I*G*S” inside on the back. £75, 1960.

SCHUBERT, PAUL
Bow-maker at Markneukirchen, 1926. Descendant of a family of bow makers working in the same town since 1848. Specialised in artist-bows. Stamped “Paul Schubert” on the stick. Also the trade-mark “an all conquering eagle with widespread wings over the letters P.S.M.” impressed on the saddle. None genuine without both these marks. Invented a bowed instrument with strengthened sound, 1921. £15, 1960.

SCHUSTER, ADOLPH CURT
Born 1890. Worked at Markneukirchen, 1920. Died 1947. Finely constructed bows of excellent strength and balance. Specially well seasoned sticks. Silver and gold mountings. Tubbs, Voirin, and Tourte successfully imitafed. £12 to £20, 1960.

SCHUSTER, CARL GOTTLOB
Worked at Markneukirchen, 1730-1760. Fairly broad modelling of Stradivarian outline. Medium arching effectively graduated. Golden brown varnish of nice transparency. Tonal quality moderately strong and nicely mellow
------------------------------------------
Carl Gottlob Schuster
Violinmacher in Neukirchen, 1741
------------------------------------------

SCHUSTER, EDOUARD
Born at Schönbach, 1881. Established at Brussels, 1910. Worked at Hirsingue (Alsace), 1944. Splendid Guarnerian modelling, also one of his own. Reddish oil varnish.
-----------------------------------------
Edouard Schuster, Luthier
Fabricaht & Reparateur
E.S.B. Galerie du Commerce, 35.
Année 19. . Bruxelles. No. . .
-----------------------------------------
-------------------------------------
Edouard Schuster, Luthier
E.S.B. Place de la Reine, 23
Année 19. . Bruxelles. No. . .
-------------------------------------
Instruments after 1925 are branded “Ed: Schuster”, also signature in ink.

SCHUSTER, JOSEPH
Worked at Schönbach, 1766-1790. Modelling rather large proportioned and not particularly attractive. Workmanship not uniformly well finished. Scroll presented with little dignity of pose. Sound-holes display few artistic properties. Nut-brown varnish, occasionally one of yellow shade. Edges sometimes disfigured by very thin strips of bone. Adopted the “trade device” of Cremona labelling. £45, 1960.
-------------------------------------------
Joseph Schuster, Geigen und
Instrumentenmacher in Schönbach
1790.
-------------------------------------------

SCHUSTER, KURT MAX
Born 1886. Pupil of Pfretzschner. Established at Markneukirchen, 1918. Fine bows suitable for soloists. £15, 1960.

SCHUSTER, MAX
Born 1881. Worked at Breslau, Wurzburg, and Berlin. Established at Markneukirchen, 1915. First-class copies of old standard models.

SCHWARTZ, ANTON
Worked at Breslau (Silesia), 1750-1760. Very vigorously designed outline, broad, and rather reminiscent of Stainer. Arching developed very high, but successful in its definition of gradation. Generally one-piece backs of rather plain material. Red-brown and yellow-brown shades of varnish. Tonal quality nicely full and of considerable sweetness. Workmanship not superfine. £30, 1925. £65, 1960.
--------------------------------------------
Antonj Schwartz, Lauten
und Geigenmacher in Breslau, 1758
--------------------------------------------
(sometimes 3-lined)

SCHWARZ, HEINRICH
Violins supposed to emanate from Leipzig, 1890-1900. Indubitably of Markneukirchen production. Innovated finger-board, pretty wood, glossy varnish, tonal quality of the usual trade instrument.

SCHWEITZER, JOHANN BAPTIST
Born at Vienna 1790. Pupil of Geissenhof. Settled at Budapest, 1825. Died 1865. Materially advanced the standard of Austrian work. A high prerogative was his, and thoroughly exercised in a right and elevated spirit. Copied most of the Cremonese makers, seemingly having a preference for the Amatese model, and also rather closely approached the style of his teacher. Hieronymus Amati modelling, conceived in rather large proportions. Workmanship commensurate with the importance of the subject, force and freedom in certain lines, and without neglect in giving considerable delicacy to all the portions requiring it. Slab back, fine vein belly wood, altogether of pretty appearance, back, sides, and front. Reddish orange-brown varnish with contrasting effects. Tonal quality has fair strength wedded to reasonable sweetness. Nicola Amati modelling accords with the beautiful, everything fashioned and moulded accurately. Handsome wood luxuriating under golden-yellow or light toast brown shades of varnish. Several specimens splendidly modelled after the Stradivarins, and its well-known characteristics well-nigh inimitably portrayed. Scroll carefully managed to fit in with the whole “picture”. Sound-holes as gracefully slanting as the prototype. Bellywood of fine acoustical properties, and one-piece backs showing large flame. Light golden brown varnish. Tonal quality pleasing in its penetrative force as well as in mellowness, of a timbre that should go far to redeem these instruments from occasional reproaches cast upon them by certain connoisseurs. £40 (1927). Equally comparable in art-work are the Maggini models. Golden brown varnish, and viola-like tone. Also built violins with scarcely any arching, but here his success is somewhat dimmed. Fine contour and neat workmanship of every detail congregated upon and within his violas. ’Cellos have a winning style which is steadily gaining on some of the older Italians. Some considerably reminiscent of a Santo Serafino. Built himself a Villa near Schwabenberge where he had a laboratory fitted up for various experiments in varnishes. Much of his varnish has not lost its original freshness, except under the finger-board and tailpiece. £80, 1960.
----------------------------
Joh. Bapt. Schweitzer
in
Pesth
----------------------------
(wording within an oval)
-------------------------------------
Joh. Bapt. Schweitzer
fecit ad forman
Hieronym Amati Pestini, 1814
-------------------------------------
Now attached to many inferior productions. Trade name used extensively by factory merchants in Saxony and the Tyrol. Commonplace imitations of his style, priced at £3 to £5 and of shaded red-brown varnish.

SCIALÈ, G.
Worked at Rome, 1800-1840. Famous for classically modelled guitars. Constructed (in his last years), a few splendid replicas of Gaetano Guadagnini. Flawless workmanship, generally two-piece backs of undulating flames, golden-yellow varnish with greenish reflections. £200, 1960.
--------------------------------
Giuseppe Scialè
Fece in Roma Anno 1832
--------------------------------

SDERCI, LUCIANO
Born 1924. Son and pupilof N.I. Replicas of father’s violins.
---------------------------------
Luciano Sderci di Igino
fece in Firenze l’anno 1949
sotto disciplina del padre
---------------------------------

SDERCI, NICOLO IGINO
Born 1884. Pupil of Bisiach. Established at Florence, 1930. Gained highest award at Cremona Exhibition, 1949. Superb workmanship and conception of classical models. Produced 400 violins and 20 violas (some of 43 cm. body length), up to year 1950. £80, 1960.
---------------------------
Igninius Sderci
a Florentia anno 1949
---------------------------

SEITZ, NICOLAS
Worked at Mittenwald, 1790-1800. Violins practically doomed to penance in exile by most players. Typical Tyrolese modelling and brown varnish. Wood too thin, also obviously chemicalised. Tonal quality equally as thin. The above deficiencies not so pronounced in violas and ’cellos.
----------------------
Nikolaus Seitz in
Mitten Walt 1799
----------------------

(written)

SERDET, PAUL
Born at Mirecourt, 1858. Apprenticed to Gaillard; worked for Derazey; went to the Sylvestre establishment at Lyons, 1877-1894; and opened own workshop at Paris, 1894. Working there, 1930. Recipient of a gold medal at Paris Exhibition, 1900. Died 1934. Splendid modelling after the Stradivarius and Guarnerius, conceived and executed perfectly. Actuated by giving a full generous applying of very transparent oil varnish. Instruments highly appreciated in France. £90, 1960.
----------------------------------
Paul Serdet
Luthier à Paris 19. . No. . .
----------------------------------
(with large monogram)

SOARABOTTO, CAVALIFRE GAETANO
Born at Vicenza (Italy), 1878. Studied wood carving and various sciences at the Academia Olimpica. The glorious art of Stradivari and Guarneri inspired him to emulate them. Acquired experience at Milan and Brescia. Established fine premises at Vicenza, 1902, and always resided there though his instruments are labelled as made at Milan. Also had a villa at San Felice. A man of culture and erudition in the arts and sciences. Knighted 1918. Honorary Member of the Royal Philharmonic Academy at Rome, and Minister of Instruction to Industrial and Commercial Institutions. Member of Exhibition juries, European and American. Particularly skilful in superb modelling of the Testore and Grancino styles. Also designed instruments having certain originalities formed of a combination of Stradivarian, Guarnerian, and Amatese principles. Magnificently transparent yellowish varnish. Gained first prize at the Consorso nationale di Liuteria, Rome, 1920, for a violin, viola, ’cello and double-bass, a competition where nearly 200 instruments were tested. £200, 1960.
---------------------------------------------
Cajetanus Sgarabotto VicentinusÅö
fecit Mediolanum anno Domini 1908
---------------------------------------------

SGARABOTTO, PIETRO
Son and pupil of the preceding. Born 1903. Won diploma for violin-playing at Bologna. Resident at Vicenza, 1920, and at Parma, 1930. Gained many medals for fine violins at Padua and Cremona, 1949. Deft workmanship of a level-headed craftsman. Splendid reputation throughout Europe and America.
-------------------------------------------
Petrus Sgarabotto Mediolani Åà
fecit Vicentiae, anno Domini, 1922
-------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------
Petrus Sgarabotto Mediolani +
fecit Parmae anno Domini 1948
---------------------------------------
Some instruments signed “Augusto Doré”. £125 (1960).

SGARBI, ANTONIO
Born at Finale Emilia (Modena), 1866. Son and pupil of Giuseppe. Resident several years at Palermo where he studied violin-playing and composition at the Bellini Conservatorio. Established at Rome, 1892, and later merged his business into that of Sgarbi and Sons. Lived a few years at Modena. Died 1905. Admirable modelling, fully developed to a healthy vigorous appearance. Beautiful wood and orange-red varnish. Connoisseurs and violinists bestow considerable patronage on these brilliantly toned instruments. £250, 1960.
----------------------------------------
Antonius Sgarbi Domo +
Finalio in Aemilia A.M.S.
Fecit Romae An. 19. .
----------------------------------------
---------------------------------------
Antonio Sgarbi da Finale-Emilia
fece in Rome anno 1896
A+S
---------------------------------------
(sometimes with signature)

SHAPIRO, OSCAR
Born Boston (Mass.), 1909. Studied violin and bass playing early in life, being descended from a family of professional musicians. Technician in a Telegraph Company, but commenced making violins as a hobby in 1953. Pupil of Willis Gault. Made five violins up to year 1959, Strad model, golden yellow varnish. Excellent workmanship. Resident of Washington, D.C.

SHELMERDINE, ANTHONY
Alderman and magistrate at Liverpool, 1924. Amateur maker with exceptional gifts in constructive art. Generally Stradivarian modelling - body length 14 inches. Neat exterior workmanship, interior most scientific. Scroll, sound-holes and purfling, all of corresponding nature in gracefulness and accuracy. Wood of fine acoustical properties - backs handsomely figured. Elastic varnish of soft texture, dark walnut-brown ot a shade resembling satin-wood.

SIEGA, IGINIO
Born 1903. Son and pupil of above. Died 1941. Violins, violas, and ’cellos much in the style of Degani, both in design and transparent varnish.
------------------------
Iginio Siega
Premiato “Liutaio
Fece Venezia 1925
------------------------
Initials branded below button. £75, 1960.

SIGNORINI, SERAFINO
Worked at Florence, 1875.

SILVESTRE, HIPPOLYTE
Born at Saint-Nicolas-du-Port, 1808. Pupil of Blaise and J. B. Vuillaume at Mirecourt. Partner with his brother Pierre at Lyons, 1841-1848. Retired to Sommerviller and entertained himself with instrument making as a hobby. Pierre’s death, 1859, recalled him to take control of the business. Retired again, 1865, and the premises were taken over by his nephew Chrétien. Died 1879. Individual work labelled with his name seem non-existent. Mainly responsible for the somewhat “commercialised” type of instruments bearing his name with that of his brother. Good work of its particular class, not unlike some of the productions of Derazey and Vuillaume. £100, 1960.

SILVESTRE, HIPPOLYTE CHRÉTIEN
Born at Sommerviller, 1845. Pupil of Pierre and Hippolyte at Lyons. Succeeded to the control of establishment, 1865. Moved to Paris, 1884, and traded under the name of “Silvestre neveu”. Became associated with Maucotel, 1900. Died 1913. Recipient of Exhibition medals at Vienna and Paris. Master craftsman in his modelling of the Stradivarius and Guarnerius. Reddish brown varnish of Italian suppleness, plentifully applied, and very transparent. Every detail splendidly wrought. Nearly always wide grain belly wood. Tonal quality of fine and responsive brilliancy. £50, 1930.
------------------------------
H. C. Silvestre neveu
à Lyon en 1872. No. 44
------------------------------
------------------------
Hippolyte Chrétien
Silvestre neveu
------------------------
--------------------------
Silvestre et Maucotel
Paris 1904 No. . . .
--------------------------
Silvestre and Maucotel also produced a high quality of tested gut strings named Miracle and Tricolore. £125, 1960.

SILVESTRE, PIERRE
Born at Sommerviller (Meurthe, France), 1801. Apprenticed to Blaise at Mirecourt. Proceeded to Paris and worked with Lupot and Gand. Fstablished own workshop at Lyons, 1829. Joined by his brother Hippolyte, 1831, worked in partnership until 1848, and afterwards alone. Died 1859. Many amateurs may ignore, or scoff at our enthusiasm for these violins, and we know that many doubt and deny the several excellencies - we wonder at this scepticism. Whoever admits of the dignity of impartial justice must pay homage to these rapidly maturing violins. Every French maker has been ordained to go through many obstructions and great prejudices before reaching his right pinnacle. We (believing in the French school), know that we have to combat with the incredulity of many players and connoisseurs; we know that our clearest expositions will be imperfectly understood by those who will not lend their ears and eyes to what we desire to enforce. Still, we do not despair of meeting some response, and perhaps succeed in converting many to our views.
Pierre’s individual work is far superior to anything in collaboration with his brother. Copied the Cremonese models, but had a partiality for the Stradivarian, which he rather faithfully delineated, though the measurements are a shade fuller. Attempted no originalities in outline and arching, except the slightly broader upper bouts, and the tiniest additional width at the waist. Each curvature ideally conceived. Corners beautifully finished and as delicate as the Amati. General measurements: body length, 14.3/32 inches; upper bouts 6-3/4; middle 4.9/16; lower 8.5/16; ribs 1-1/4 all round. Magnificently cut scrolls posed naturally and dignified, every curve and undulation being illumined beams of artistry, perfect fluting terminating by a bold squaring off at the bottom of the head. Purfling wondrously neat and narrow. Sound-holes especially fine, and must compel the admiration of any critic. Quality of woods always maintained, belly wood of immaculate fineness and straightness of grain, ribs and backs furnished with the handsomest material procurable. Shade of varnish generally a dark-tinted red of velvety smoothness, and its application has all the elements of grandeur. Tonal quality of fine resistance, all sufficient brilliancy and clearness, absolute evenness and a timbre foreshadowing a mellowness to gratify future generations, something to which all reason and conscience must respond. Guarnerian modelled specimens also splendid, though body length is slightly increased, and arching of upper bouts a shade excessive. Produced a few on the Grand-Amati plan, and everything thereon and therein felicitously done. Catalogued at £70 to £100, 1925. Violas rather scarce. ’Cellos of Stradivarian modelling and glorious reddish varnish. £150, 1925. Large-toned and of considerable appealing maturity. Several double-basses with modelled backs. Total productivity of instruments, 350. Best period, 1850-1858.
-------------------
Pierre Silvestre
à Lyon 1848
-------------------
(with monogram double-circled)
-----------------------------------------------
Fait par Silvestre ainé No. 2
Luthier chez Ma. chez Gand rue Crois
des petits Champs No. 24. Paris 1827
----------------------------------------------
(written)
Sometimes the accent over “a” is acute instead of grave.
Instruments made in partnership with his younger brother are of a quite different class from his individual work. Apparently an attempt to emulate the commercial output of Derazey and other Mirecourtians. Nevertheless several specimens stand out from the rest, and generally realise about £40. Personal work £125 to £200, 1960.
----------------------------------------------
P.H.S.
Petrus et Hipolitus Fratres Silvestre
Fecerunt Lugdini Anno 1838 No. 163
----------------------------------------------

SIMON, P.
Born at Mirecourt, 1808. Worked for J. B. Vuillaume at Paris. Became successor of D. Peccatte in the rue d’Angivilliers, 1847; had one of the Henry’s for a partner, 1848-1851; then worked alone in the rue Saint-Denis until death, 1882. Produced many worthy specimens of bows which his genius deservedly rendered popular. Finely executed large heads closely identified with most of his work. Octagonal sticks generally, and every attention paid to smooth finish of the bevelling. Average weight, 2.1/16 ounces. Stamped “Simon. Paris”. Occasionally not stamped. Several French traders produce “commercial” bows stamped “Simon”. £20, 1960.

SIMONAZZI, AMEDEO
Born 1891. Pupil of Scarampella. Worked at Santa Vittoria (Reggio Emilia); and at Gualtieri, 1920. Produced 130 violins, also several ’cellos (Guadagnini style) up to year 1949. Everything superbly worked out. First series of instruments with golden red varnish, later a golden yellow, both beautifully transparent. Warm and pure tonal quality. Assisted by son Riccardo (born 1929). £90, 1960.
------------------------
Simonazzi Amedeo
in S. Vittoria Fece
Anno 19. .
------------------------
-----------------------------------------
Simonazzi Amedeo
Scolaro di “Stefano Scarampella,,
----------
Fatto a S. Vittoria (Emilia)
Anno 1946
-----------------------------------------

SIMONIN, CHARLES
Born at Mirecourt, 1815. Apprenticed to J. B. Vuillaume at Paris, and soon established favouritism with him. Worked at Mirecourt; at Geneva, 1841-1849; and at Toulouse, 1850-1880. Obtained various awards at Exhibitions. Finely proportioned modelling, massive and dignified as a whole, and “truthful” in details. Nearly always of the Guarnerian form. Whole edifice reminiscent of Vuillaume influence. Excellent belly wood acoustically, but backs not always consistent with real prettiness of figure. Reddish shade of varnish mostly, occasionally golden-yellow. Tonal quality very reedy, brilliant and responsive. Also built violins with double-purfling and ornamentations on the back.
--------------------
Charles Simonin
à Mirecourt
--------------------
-------------------------------
Ch. Simonin
Luthier à Toulouse 1877
-------------------------------
-------------------------------
Simonin Charles
èlève du Sieur Vuillaume
Paris
--------------------------------
Branded “S.C.” - initials surmounted by a crown. £100, 1960.

SIMOUTRE, NICOLAS
Born at Mirecourt, 1788. Apprenticed to Lupot at Paris. Worked at Mirecourt and Paris, 1803-1843, and had several talented assistants including the brothers Vuillaume. Settled at Metz, 1844. Died there, 1870. Productivity resulted in more than a 1,000 violins and ’cellos. Large proportioned Stradivarian modelling somewhat in the style of Lupot. Outline curvatures done with a rapid certainty which skill dictates. Corners approached with a beautifully drawn touch; every part of the arching highly creditable in gradation. Scroll indescribably graceful as well as dignified, and shows his intimate acquaintance with the resources of perfect curving, fluting, etc. Expended equal ingenuity on the sound-holes. Purfling makes impression on the microscopic eyes. Wood often of good acoustical properties, but seldom prettily flamed. Reddish brown spirit varnish, perhaps a little hard, but applied with cunning nicety. Tonal quality not particularly sympathetic, but strong and brilliant, well serving the purpose of young technicians full of bowing strength. £35, 1930. Also successfully copied the Guarnerius, Amati, and others. Produced many guitars in earlier years. £90, 1960.
------------------------------
Nicolavs Simoutre
Lupot Nicolal discipulus
Divoduri fecit 18. .
------------------------------
-----------------------------------
Répare par Simoutre à Metz
en. 1862
-----------------------------------

SIMOUTRE, NICOLAS EUGÈNE
Son and pupil of the preceding. Born at Mirecourt, 1834. Worked for Darche at Paris, 1852; and for Ch. Roth and Schwartz at Strassburg, 1856-1860. Established workshops at Mulhausen and Basle (Switzerland), 1860-1889. Opened premises at Paris, 1890, assisted by his son Eugène. Awarded “diplôme d’honneur” at the Basle Exhibition, 1877, and at Zurich, 1883. Patented, in 1885, a round legged or oval sound-post, which had for strengthening, a piece of wood glued to belly, and a similar piece to back. Made various innovations concerning the bass-bar and sound plates, also advocated the employment of certain woods other than pine and maple, but none of his ideas effected any revolution in the methods of subsequent makers. Built a large number of violins, violas, ’cellos, and double-basses - no outstanding features other than ordinarily good modelling and workmanship. Style reminiscent of Lupot. Various shades of varnish, sometimes applied very picturesquely - red being predominant. Produced imitations of celebrated ltalian instruments, and claimed to achieve the deep melancholy tone of the Maggini, the clarity and expressiveness of the Stradivarius, and the various timbres of the Guarnerius. Alard, Sarasate, Marsick, Léonard, and other virtuosi gave their names to laudatory testimonials, and several members of the famous Gewandhaus orchestra at Leipzig were presented with specimens. However, present day opinions have relegated them to £20 in tonal value. (1925).
---------------------------------------------------------------------
N. E. Simoutre, inventeur bréveté
des Supports harmoniques et de la Barre semi-adhérente
38 rue de l’Echiquier à Paris - année 1892
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Author of “To Amateurs of the Violin. History, construction, repairing, and preserving of this instrument” (Basle, 1883). 55 pages of sensible ideas.
“The Progress of Violin-building” (Basle, 1886). 70 pages describing his “Supportharmonique” which consists of the lettering-in of wooden plates in the centre of the belly and back, with certain variations in the form and position of sound-post - supposed to endow violins with a tonal quality previously unthought of.
“Supplement to the above Works” (Basle, l889). Deals rather fully with colouring varnishes and has considerably raised a corner of the veil which floats over its mysterious secret.
Quote - “In order to colour varnishes, I use sulphuric ether because it is mixable in all proportions with turpentine which forms the basis of the varnish. The colouring materials used are gamboge, dragon’s-blood, orleans, and sandalwood. The substances are digested in the cold with ether according to the colours desired. The solutions must be made as concentrated as possible. It is indisputable that ether (which is much more volatile than alcohol) once it is coloured and incorporated in the varnish, evaporates and leaves behind in suspension the colouring matter with which it was charged.” Several violin makers tried this method, but generally found it of a syrupy consistency which made the drying very slow. It ran, and formed quite inartistic agglomerations. £75, 1960.

SIMPSON, JAMES AND JOHN
Worked in London, 1780-1795. Father and son. The former generally followed the Tyrolese style, agreeable outline without stiffness. Workmanship plainly showing he lacked stimulus of refinement. Scroll even less satisfactory - narrow and miserably shaped. Sound-holes make a good advance towards grace, but purfling often unsteady. Orange yellow varnish of dark shade. The son seems to have directed his attention more to the Amatese model, though he occasionally changed his tactics by a non-pretty narrowing of the waist. Light brown varnish of reasonable transparency. Sound-holes generally shorter than the Amati. Seldom produced an instrument not of a slab back of quite handsome wood. Tonal quality quite small but rather mellow.
--------------------------------------------------------
J. and J. Simpson
Musical Instrument Makers
at the Bass-Viol and Flute
in Sweeting’s Alley
opposite the East door of the Royal Exchange
London.
---------------------------------------------------------
Also a label with same wording except that “John Simpson” is substituted for “J. and J. Simpson”. Branded “Simpson” with sealing-wax stamp on back.

SIMPSON, THOMAS
Born at Burnley (Lancashire), 1864. Worked at Walsall as a piano-repairer, 1883. Went to Peterborough, 1898, where he commenced violin-making. Moved to Birmingham, 1900. Held the best reputation as a repairer in that city for twenty years. Took a house by the sea at Brixham (Devon), 1925. Died 1933. Produced 80 violins of different models, all well designed. To a casual observer the workmanship may appear lacking in absolute refinement, but critical scrutiny will at least approve of its accuracy and thoroughness. Scrolls and sound-holes have quite a personal touch. Varied varnishing of different shades, sometimes with slight deficiencies in colour and application, but though none ever approach a revelation in the art, they are all free from any imputation of real impurity or anything really undesirable. Specialised in tone production (and outside work was more or less subservient to it) and in some instances he imparted something on that sure and permanent basis which will assume its full sovereignty in future years.
----------------------------
Thomas Simpson
fecit Dei gloriae T.S.
Handsworth No. 1902
----------------------------
Sometimes branded T 23
S 1900
Instruments from No. 70 date from Brixham.
Also realised fine balance together with remarkably smart workmanship on a good number of soloist’s bows. Stamped “Simpson Birmingham”.

SIRONI, AMBROGIO
Born 1901. Pupil of Antoniazzi. Worked at Milan. Died in 33rd year. Excellent designs, workmanship and varnish. Won diploma at Rome.
-------------------------------------------------
Premiato alla Reale Accademia di Roma
Ambrogio Sironi +
Allievo di Antoniazzi A.S.
Fece in Milano l’anno 1929
-------------------------------------------------
(with signature and address)

SIVORI
Commercial instruments turned out in large quantities and labelled -
---------------------------
Sivori
Grand Artiste-Violine
Fabrik Marke
No. 1001 A.D. 1914
---------------------------
(monogram within a shield, in centre)

SMILLIE, ALEXANDER
Born 1847. Worked at Glasgow, 1888-1918. Received no training from any maker, but the gratifying results of his early instruments propelled him into taking the art up as a profession. Multiplicity of his violins attest his diligence. The excellence of all, and the especially high quality of many, testify to genius. Without servilely copying the Stradivarian and Guarnerian (mostly the former), he based upon those styles the “feeling” of Cremonese influences; enlisting all facile talent to aid him in the production of artistic designs. Perhaps not ideal conceptions, but nevertheless very splendid. Outline graceful yet masculine, upper bouts more rounded than the Stradivarian, arching moderately full, but finely extended in gradation and a well developed waist, the whole completely harmonious. Plates thick in wood, but sufficiently tapered to afford free vibration. Backs a quarter of an inch thick at centre. Scroll manipulation has none of the adventitious excursions usually associated with this prominent feature, but travels the undulatory paths with great certitude. Same sureness of hand (guided by a true eye) establishes fineness about the sound-holes and purfling. Very old and thoroughly seasoned woods, excellent in quality, fibre, and flame. Belly-wood mostly of wide vein. Whitelaw’s amber varnish of various shades, preferably red or brownish yellow, splendidly applied and very patiently toned down. Sonorous tone, strong, often brilliant, and not without elements of persuasive sympathetic quality. ’Cellos also of similar characteristics. Each instrument numbered. £80, 1960.
-------------------------------
Alex: Smillie fecit
Crosshill, Glasgow, 1900
No. 132
-------------------------------
(sloped lettering)
Erudite antiquarian, also an authority on Persian carpets, etc.

SMITH, ARTHUR EDWARD
Born at Maldon (Essex), 1880. Not taught by any maker, but gleaned information from Hill’s book on Stradivarius. Made interesting restorations of poor models during his spare hours, ultimately attracting C. W. Jefferies of Maldon, who had extensive premises as a dealer and was himself an enthusiast in violin art. Worked at that warehouse for five years. Migrated to Melbourne (Australia), 1909. Subsequently moved to Sydney, and built up a splendid reputation for repairing, etc., which enabled him to have the assistance of five or six workmen. Maldon early instruments all exhibit excellent outline and arching, and particularly good scrolls. Productivity of this period resulted in 20 violins and one quarter. Sound-holes perhaps slightly less meritorious. Priced at £10 to £20, 1910. Later Australian instruments greatly superior in every department. Truly splendid curvatures of outline, and fine gradation in arching. Sound-holes ideally picturesque. Neat and very accurate purfling, artistically mitred at the corners. Handsomest wood procurable. Carried out almost endless experiments with oil varnish, and succeeded in getting one exceptionally elastic and transparent in shades of pale golden-yellow, orange-red and reddish-brown. Strongly in favour of the orange-red, and most of his instruments have this lovely shade - a shade derived from the process of manufacture and not from impregnance of any coloured pigment. Altogether a fine achievement in sonority of tone. Usually valued at £50. Instruments praised by the leading virtuosi visiting or residing in that far-off country. Recognised as the premier maker in any Australian city. Also produced violas and ’cellos.
-------------------------------------
Made by
A. E. Smith for
Jeffreys & Sons
Maldon, Essex. No. . . . 1906
-------------------------------------
-----------------------
Edward VII
No. 8 A. E. Smith
Maldon 1901
-----------------------
--------------------
Arthur E. Smith
Sydney, 1924
--------------------

SMITH, BERT
Born at Sale (Cheshire). Resident at Bowness-on-Windermere, and at Coniston in 1938. First instrument dated 1930. Specialist in copying the “Messie” Strad, and the Vieuxtemps Guarnerius. Also violas of 16-1/2 inches body-length; upper bouts 8.1/16; lower, 10; ribs 1-5/8 to 1.9/16. Violin and viola bows form part of his industry.
--------------------------------------------
Facsimile
Antonius Stradivarius
Made by Bert Smith
“East View”, Coniston, Lancs. 19. .
--------------------------------------------

SMITH, JOHN
Worked at Whitchurch (Shropshire), 1794-1820. Amatese modelling very “truthfully” rendered. Workmanship infinitely refined. Golden brown varnish most felicitously applied. Medium arching and small scroll, both splendid. Tonal quality quite Italian, not large but most attractively sweet. Some specimens anti-dated 100 years.

SMITH, JOHN
Born at Raunds (Northamptonshire), 1850. Resident at Teddington. Died 1923. Guarnerian modelling but possessing too much individuality (not unworthily) to be a faithful delineation. Careful workmanship without especial fine finish. Bold scroll rather unique on the approach to the boss. Sound-holes well in keeping with the original. Varied shades of oil varnish, yellow to red. Tonal quality generally sweeter than many new instruments.
---------------
Made by
John Smith
Teddington.
London, W.
---------------

SMITH, JOHN
Born at Fauldhouse (West Lothian), 1859. Served apprenticeship as a joiner and cabinet-maker. Practised the violin every evening after workshop hours. While resident at Bathgate (West Lothian), became interested in violin construction, some inherited talent (father and uncles were all more or less fanatics in the art) impulsing him to create anything that could be played upon. Produced first proper instrument, 1878. Went to live at Falkirk and decided on becoming a professional maker, 1880-1904. Worked at Glasgow, then migrated to Winnipeg (Canada) where, in 1928, he was still enjoying great activity in his pursuit. Died 1941. Most of the violins of early period constructed on the Stradivarian ideas incorporated in Davidson’s text book. Later instruments more individualistic - outline reminiscent of a Guarnerius, but arching rises direct from purfling and tapers out very gracefully. Viewed from the front they appear to be almost flat, but when held sideways the peculiar depth of arching is very observable. Full proportions, and general appearance rather massive. No tiniest detail loosely executed. Admirable scroll equipped with personality, fluting well defined, and perfect bossing. Inside-work has all the propriety of scientific minuteness. Sound-holes not deficient in pose, curves, wings, gradation of stem, and notches, all being treated with the utmost respect. Purfling also splendidly steady and perfection of width maintained all round. Spent “a little fortune” in procuring finest woods. Did not believe in American material of any kind. Used Italian sycamore (felled at least 100 years), for backs and ribs, Italian pine for tops, and cedar of Lebanon for reinforcement of sides. Total productivity up to the year 1928 amounted to 130 violins, 3 violas, 6 ’cellos, and 2 quartets (one made for the Glasgow Exhibition, 1901, and, the other for the Winnipeg Exposition, 1921). Personal friend of James Whitelaw of Glasgow, and exclusively used his amber varnish until moving to Winnipeg. Began experimenting in that problematical affair and ultimately formulated one which, when applied and polished by an artist such as he, gives the effect of sunrise or sunset according to the different shades. Effect obtained by application of eight coats - two of pale amber, two of orange, two of dark orange, and two of dark brown. Tonal quality particularly good, large and penetrating, with the elements of sympathetic sonority, a tone of which the maker was justifiably proud, and, without being accused of undue conceit, or “knocking” at others, claimed at least an equality with any contemporary maker. Made a violin for the National Museum of Wales. Believed in leaving plenty of wood in his instruments, and if graduations are properly equalised to the capacity, smooth tone must emanate, irrespective of the quality and thickness of varnish. Advocated that the modern violin is made as perfectly as the old, and will yield similar results with the necessary hand of time.
---------------
Made by
John Smith
Falkirk
No. 1893
---------------
---------------------------------------------
Made by
John Smith
617 Furby St. Winnipeg
Late of Glasgow & Falkirk, Scotland
----------------------------------------------

SMITH, THOMAS
Worked in London, 1740-1790. Pupil and successor of Peter Wamsley. Specialised in production of ’cellos. Modelling bears certain traits of the Stainer pattern. Nothing particularly luminous about the workmanship, yet fairly acceptable in finish. Scroll and sound-holes of no especial enhancement. Quality of varnish not praiseworthy, shades being either a brownish yellow or a muddy yellow. Some specimens have a powerful tone which, however, is generally dry and raspy. Orchestral players of his time greatly favoured them, and paid £8 to £10. A hundred years later the prices had mounted to £40.
Violins generally of a flattish arching. Design and workmanship just creditable. Scroll and sound-holes not entirely relieved of a kind of stiffness. Belly wood often of narrow vein, and backs of nicely flamed material. Light brown varnish not very transparent. Tonal quality of moderate power and sweetness. £65. ’Cellos £95, 1960.
----------------------------------------------
Made by Thomas Smith
at the harp and hautboy in Pikcadilly,
London, 1759
----------------------------------------------
------------------
T. Smith 1756
------------------
Sometimes branded “T. Smith” and date.
Said to have made double-bass bows, but quite likely Edward Dodd was the actual maker. Stamped “T. Smith”.

SMITH, THOMAS
Born at Larkhall (Lanarkshire), 1901. Agriculturist, resident at Old Struther Farm, 1927. Produced about a dozen violins and 2 ‘cellos from 1921 to 1923.
No. 1. Stradivarius model, dark brown varnish.
Nod. 2 to 6. Amati models, dark red varnish.
No. 7. Maggini model, dark red varnish.
’Cellos of Stradivarian design, dark orange varnish.

SMITH, THOMAS
Working at Lakewood (Cleveland), 1950. University of Illinois have five perfectly matched viols made by him, who followed specifications based on measurements of antique viols.

SMITH, WILLIAM
Worked at Hedon (Yorkshire), 1780-1805. Design and workmanship not very creditable.

SMITH, WILLIAM
Worked in London, 1770-1790. Violins and ’cellos.
------------------
Wm. Smith
Real Maker
London, 1771
------------------
Also signed.

SMITH, W. E.
Resident at Bristol, 1925. Patented a pure spirit varnish of lustre, and durability, and applied without size or any other ingredient - golden amber colour. Built instruments somewhat resembling the Greffuhle Stradivarius.

SNEIDER, GIUSEPPE
A German who worked at Pavia (Italy), 1690-1725. Assisted Nicolò Amati in his workshop at Cremona, 1680. Some instruments very similar to those of Hieronymus Amati, son of Nicolò, fairly large proportioned and medium arching. Others more approaching the contour of a Nicolò. Scrolls generally very gracefully cut and posed. Sound-holes sometimes placed slightly farther apart than usual with the Cremonese, but always artistically designed. Yellow shade of varnish, rich in texture and transparent. Tonal quality almost unimpeachable in its evenness. £650, 1960.
-----------------------------------
Joseph Sneider Papiae
alumnus Nicolai Amati
Cremonae, fecit Anno 1703
-----------------------------------
(decorative border)

SOCCOL, PIO
Worked at Agordo, 1868-1873, and at Genoa. Recipient of medal at the London Exhibition, 1870. Guarnerian modelling done with the accuracy of a very skilled hand. Deep red varnish of brilliant hue. Scroll and sound-holes as perfect as necessary. Belly wood splendid in straight grain, accompanied by pretty material for backs and ribs. Responsive and bright tone, of obvious utility to vigorous players. £30, 1930.

SOFFRITTI, ALOYSIO (LUIGI)
Worked at Ferrara (Italy), 1860-1896. Splendid outline and rather flat arching. Broad edging not entirely attractive. Belly wood often of wide grain. Golden brown varnish of much suppleness. £25, 1920. Some instruments anti-dated 50 or 100 years. £90, 1960.

SOFFRITTI, CAVALIERE ETTORE (HECTOR)
Son and pupil of A. Constructed first violin in 8th year. Born at Ferrara, 1877. Cremonese masters variously emphasised in superb modelling, completely entitled to the highest commendation. Not only are the designs picturesque, but in masterly handling of varnish he succeeded in realising the aesthetic spirit after which so many have aspired and failed. Perfection of pose enhances neat carving of scroll. Sound-holes distinguished by like admirable qualities. Studiously careful purfling artistry. Golden-yellow and golden-red shades of varnish. Instruments magnificently exemplifying the principles which have been determined by the Cremonese as the canons of art. Recipient of gold medals at Turin and Brussels. First prizewinner at the competition organised by the Saint-Cecilia Academy Administration, Rome, 1923. Honoured with a knighthood, 1925. Died tragically, 1928. Labels all with decorative border. £200, 1960.
---------------------------------
Hector Soffriti filius Aloysj
fecit Ferrariae An. Dom.
---------------------------------
------------------------------------
Ettore Soffritti
Premiato con Medaglie d’oro
figlio ed allievo del Luigi
Fece in Ferrara l’anno 19. .
------------------------------------

SOLFERINO, REMO
Born 1882. Pupil of Soffritti. Worked at Mantua until 1940, then moved to Verona. Excellent modelling of various old Italians. Very effective golden-yellow varnish. £85, 1960.

SOLIANI, ANGELO
Born 1752. Worked at Modena. Died 1810. Two models, one slightly arched somewhat reminding of a Guadagnini, and one of higher arching and longer body length. Effective graduating of plates with a nice suggestion of Amati grooving which gives the edging a slight tilt. Purfling very slender and thread-like. Scroll of smallish dimensions, but of very graceful swing and deeply cut. Belly wood generally of medium grain, strong in fibre. Usually two-piece backs of close-figured material, also ribs. Golden-orange varnish with a touch of red - supple and transparent, also a golden amber tending towards brown. Tonal quality moderately powerful, very silvery and clear, and of matured mellowness. One specimen, dated 1790, realised 1,200 dollars in the U.S.A., 1928.
-------------------------
Angelus Soliani fecit
Mutinae, 1789
-------------------------
(bearing the “Sign of the Sun” in right-hand corner)
Sometimes branded. £450 to £600, 1960.

SOLLNER, FRANZ JOSEF
Born 1848. Pupil of Lemböck at Vienna. Worked at Budapest and other cities. Established own workshop at Tachau (Bohemia), 1876. Engaged in London, 1888; again at Budapest, 1890 and returned to Tachau, 1901. Splendid modelling after the Stradivarian, Guarnerian, and Maggini. Pretty spirit varnish of own formula, reddish brown shade mostly favoured. Good and well figured wood. Tonal quality rather small but very even, round, and mellow. Instruments deserving of wider recognition.
-----------------------
Franz Jos. Sollner
Tachau, 1902
-----------------------

SOMNY, JOSEPH MAURICE
Son and pupil of Somney-Ouchard. Born at Mirecourt. Worked for Hill & Sons at Hanwell, 1888-1910. Established own workshop at Boston Road, Hanwell, 1911. Later opened premises in George Street, London. Died 1931. Capable of the finest work but, had many lapses into carelessness, mostly caused by illhealth. Cremonese modelling generally, but always with a slight touch of originality sometimes to be deplored as well as praised in other instances. Some specimens have peculiar arching, an abrupt drop halfway between centre and sides. Others have deep ribs and strange arching. Did not always exercise judicious judgement in selection of wood. Varnish often of a dull yellow of hard quality, but some examples have been treated with one of an orange-red hue of fair transparency. Tonal quality invariably strong and brilliant, but often uneven and without sympathy. £60, 1960.
-----------------------------
Made by
J. M. Somny
Hanwell, London, 1912
-----------------------------
(written and signed J.M.S.)
------------------------------
Made by
J. M. Somny
90 George Str. Baker St.
London. W. 1914
------------------------------

SORIOT, D.
Instruments made at the Laberté Factory, Mirecourt, 1890-1930. Clear amber varnish. Signed “Soriot”.
--------------------
D. Soriot
Luthier D.S.
Ecole Française
--------------------
(also bearing a shield)

SORIOT ET DIDION, DABE
Worked at Mirecourt. Well-made class of trade instrument. Workmanship tolerably well finished. Scroll and sound-holes nicely positioned. Generally one-piece backs. Branded “Soriot et Didion.

SORSANO, SPIRITO
Worked at Cuneo (Piedmont), 1714-1736. Reminiscent of Cappa and Amati. Not triumphs in design or workmanship, yet there is a very acceptable naturalness. Contrasting with authenticated specimens are many “trade” violins spuriously labelled with name of Sorsano, instruments entirely commonplace and the essence of barbarism. £450, 1960.
--------------------
Spiritus Sorsano
Coni, 1717
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---------------------
Spiritus Sorsano
fecit Cunei 1736
---------------------
(decorative border)

SPIDLEN, FRANTISEK F.
Born at Sklenarice (Bohemia), 1867. Worked for Metelka and Vitcáek at Prague. Migrated to Russia, and opened premises at Kiev, 1894. Bought the business of Salzard at Moscow, and succeeded him as maker to the Conservatoire. Returned to Prague, 1909. Died 1916. Models vary in kind as well as in degrees of merit, but he had preference for the Stradivarian and Guarnerian. Productions completely artistic. Careful and conscientious workmanship. Backs always of the prettiest material. Rich brownish shade of varnish apparently prepared from exclusive formula, and seemingly without the slightest deteriorating ingredient. Strongly round tonal quality frequently praised by Russian and Bohemian soloists. Name branded on back. £80, 1960.
-----------------------------
Franciskus F. Spidlen
fecit Prague Anno 1912
-----------------------------

SPIDLEN, OTAKAR
Son and pupil of the preceding. Born at Kiev, 1896. Succeeded to father’s establishment in the Jungmannowa at Prague, 1916. Made several edifying excursions into notable transepts of the Italian models. Accuracy of proportions and neatness of workmanship completely exemplified. £70, 1960.
-----------------------------------
Otakar F. Spilden
zhotovil v Praze roku 19. . .
-----------------------------------

SPIDLEN, P. O.
Son of O. Born 1920. Splendid replicas of a Lupot or J. B. Vuillaume. Golden red varnish artistically applied. £70, 1960.
----------------------------------
Premysl Otakar Spidlen
Faciebat Pragae Anno 19. .
----------------------------------
(with initials double-circled)

SPIEGEL, JÁNOS
Born at Ödenburg (Hungary), 1876. Worked with Pilát and Schunda. Established at Budapest, 1898. All the outstanding characteristics of the Guarnerian model done in a masterly manner. Enlightened policy has led to a beautiful application of rich varnish.
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Spiegel
János
Budapest, 1912
--------------------
(written)

SQUIER, JEROME BONAPARTE
Born in Ohio State, 1838. Died 1912. Worked at Boston (Mass.) Productivity realized 600 instruments. Made remarkable experiments to arrive at the Italian tonal quality. Very patient and very enthusiastic in his art. Considered to be one of the foremost of American makers. Manifested the greatest ability when a youth. Built instruments having the mark “par excellence” all over them. Produced an amber varnish from own formula which was pronounced a paradisical hue, generally a golden-brown of magnificent lustre. Celebrated for his “Apostle” violins, a series of twelve, each named after an apostle. Also named some examples as the “George Washington” and the “Abraham Lincoln”. Greater number conceived on Stradivarian lines, notably that of the Alard Strad. Tonal quality brilliant and clear. £50, 1920.

SQUIER, VICTOR CARROL
Son and pupil of the preceding. Produced first instrument 1883. Established a workshop at Battle Creek (Michigan), 1890. Employed several assistants 1926. Specialised in producing high-grade copies of the Messie and Earl Strads. Golden-brown or red-brown varnish.
----------------------------------------
Victor Carroll Squier
No. 695. Maker
Anno 1928. Battle Creek. Mich.
---------------------------------------
(monogram circled)

STADLMANN, JOHANN JOSEPH
Son, pupil and successor of the preceding. Born 1720. Died 1781. Worked at Vienna. Maker and repairer to the Viennese Court. Had the family predilection for choosing the Stainer. Instruments often of extreme arching - fuller than those of father, also a few more Stradivarian. Workmanship maintains the excellence of his predecessor. Particularly well-cut scroll, though without originality. Dark brown varnish of no astonishing intensity, and on some examples its shade has deteriorated to nearly black. Other instruments have backs and ribs of dark brown varnish, while the belly has a clear reddish-yellow not subjected to any corrosiveness. Tonal quality often quite mellow, but also nasal, and of slight carrying power though sounding moderately loud under the ear. £40, 1932. Also ’cellos rather sought for by the Austrians. £70, 1960.
------------------------------
Joann Joseph
Stadlmann
Kayserl: Königl:
Hof Lauten und Geigen
macher in Wien. 1771
------------------------------
(with design of the Austrian Double-Eagle in centre)

STADLMANN, MICHAEL IGNAZ
Son and pupil of Johann Joseph. Born 1756. Died 1813. Worked at Vienna. Maker and repairer to the Viennese Court. Also one of the principal violinists in the orchestra at the Royal Chapel, 1799-1813. Generally adopted lower arching than predecessors, although some few instruments have the inflated Proportions of the Stainer. Many violins excellently designed on Stradivarian principles, generalising and skilfully representing in broad masses the dignified graces of the original. Conceived the scroll with an artistry in which several of his native contemporaries were confessedly deficient. Also not failed in the imitations of the sound-holes. Very transparent red-brown and yellow-brown shades of varnish, causing the wood flames to shimmer with a pretty golden (dark and light) glossiness. Sometimes a lion’s head substituted for the scroll. Tonal quality often clear and resonant. Also reasonable to expect that a person who can correctly delineate such pretty violin forms, should succeed with the same felicity in the representation of the viola form, all having well chosen and non-exaggerated touches. Produced several fine ’cellos, body length of 30-1/4 inches. Tops sometimes of a rarely fine piece of spruce, the grain being narrow at the centre and widening towards the edge. Backs, generally of two pieces, showing a beautiful softly marked and almost even graining in the curly maple, the figure slanting slightly downwards from the centre joint. Ribs well matching the backs. Generally of a slightly under-medium arching. Suitably designed scroll often of plain material. Rich golden-brown varnish plentifully applied. Tonal quality of “singing” mellowness, rather good penetrative power, and certainly very responsive. £120, 1960.
------------------------------
Michael Ignatius
Stadlmann
Kayserl: Königl:
Hof Lauten und Geigen
macher in Wien 1782
------------------------------

STAINER, JACOB
Born at Absam near Innsbruck (Tyrol), 1621. Early life somewhat surrounded in mystery, and so brought “garlands of romance” to be woven round his name by the pens of his commentators. Conjectured that he travelled in his 17th year to Cremona to study with the Amatis, also that he married the daughter of that family, and afterwards lived at Venice, but much of this tale weaving has long since been exploded. It seems more likely that his young years were occupied as a kind of shepherd wandering through woods and fields, thus becoming interested in trees, and gradually imbued with the ambition to build instruments. During some part of this early period he had lessons in music and violin playing from Daniel Herz (a local organ builder), to whom he was apprenticed as an assistant in the woodwork, but had to relinquish the pursuit as the close confinement was not conducive to maintaining good health. Hence his subsequent open-air occupation. In the local woods he had many opportunities of gaining insight into tree properties. Daily he wandered through the neighbouring labyrinth of trees, tapping this and that one, with a little hammer, in order to discover their powers of resonance. Other times he watched the woodmen felling timber, and listened for and tried to fix the pitch of the note that resounded as the blocks struck the earth and rocks. Throughout life he steadfastly retained his fastidiousness in choosing the exact material for his particular purposes, took precautions to study the rings which are yearly added to the stem of the tree, always discarding pieces with the rings too close or too far apart - satisfied himself only with the “happy medium”, regularity of fibre, etc. Produced first bunch of instruments in 19th year. Soon travelled to the various market fairs in the vicinity, often rewarded with 30 gulden for each specimen. Married Margerethe Holzhammer, 1645, the result of the union being eight daughters and one son (the latter dying in infancy).
Travelled through Austria, 1648, and worked for some time at Kirchdorf. Returned to Absam, and enjoyed the privilege of a command from the Archduke Ferdinand Carl at Innsbruck to be principal maker and repairer to the Court orchestra, as well as a playing member, 1658. Here he had golden opportunities of carefully scrutinising the Cremonese instruments belonging to the Italian players engaged by the Archduke. Appointed maker, also personal attendant etc. to his Majesty the Emperor Leopold I, 1669. During these years he apparently prospered financially, but soon afterwards commenced his unfortunate fall into various distracting troubles. Had serious domestic worries which upset the complete absorption to his art, gradually allowing himself to get into money difficulties, and made little or no effort to extricate himself. Imprisoned for participating in the Lutheran movement, 1669, but released the following year. Worry and personal indifference played havoc with his constitution and ultimately drove him to the profoundest melancholy, which culminated in madness and death, 1683. Wife and daughters were left in abject poverty and were sheltered in the Poor-House. Wife died in 1689, which chronologically upsets the fictitious romance so widely circulated that in consequence of the grief occasioned by her demise, he withdrew from public life and became an inmate of a Benedictine Monastery, where (according to traditional imagination), he constructed the twelve “Elector” violins which he presented to the respective Electors with suitable inscriptions, etc. Even if this story could have been founded on some stratum of truth and that the violins really existed, where have the inscriptions disappeared to? Just past the Church at Absam is the Stainer-Grasse, and there stands the picturesque chalet formerly the residence of the violin maker. On the front is affixed a tablet bearing the following inscription:
---------------------------------------
In diesem Hause
lebte einer Kunst
Jakob Stainer
Der Vater der deutschen Geige
Geboren zu Absam 14 Juli 1621
hier Gestsorben 1683
---------------------------------------
On the south side of the house, under the projecting eaves, is a balcony or loggia, on which he stored and ripened his wood, and where he made many instruments when the weather conditions permitted. We can easily imagine the happiness he frequently experienced during the summer months, sitting at the substantial workbench living and absorbed in his art, momentarily allowing his eyes to wander round, watching the freshness and sparkle of the morning sun appearing over the towering distant hills, the edges of the clouds forming a gloriously colourful scene, the foliage of his garden trees, roses, and other flowers, and his pipe, which was seldom away from his lips. Of relics concerning Stainer, the house is now unfortunately bereft, except for the bench which lies neglected in an upper room. Stainer was the originator of the Tyrolese school - highly arched violins with a sort of table-land central ridge, a form having no association or conformity with the Cremonese, a form he very rarely departed from, and even then but very slightly. He had a profusion of copyists, good and bad, in all countries except Italy, and it is not easily determinable why so many were attracted to a model obviously opposed to the free emission of a finely-strong tone. Hundreds of instruments not having much affinity with the Stainer characteristics except being pot-bellied have been attributed to him by the multitude. Had numerous pupils, Mathias Albani, Aegidius Klotz, and Christoph Klingler. Many used a faked Stainer label when one of their instruments turned out especially successful. The most noteworthy later period imitators were Stadlmann of Vienna, and Leopold Widhalm of Nürnberg. Inferiority in size and structure is almost always accompanied by inferiority in tone and relative usefulness. It must therefore be expected that the highest endowments are only possessed by those instruments that are noblest in external condition and form. Stainer violins, of none too elevated a tone, are not superlatively graceful in outline or arching, nor are there any special advantages associated with them, but at any rate, they are the result of an entirely independent genius who strove to improve on predecessors’ efforts, and to create something that the world would for ever recognize “as his”. But, in striving for originality he missed certain tonal elements, yet, his semi-tortuous pattern (viewed in conjunction with the Cremonese) was admired for scores of years; makers, discriminate enough in matters of varnish and wood, copied it with pride, and purchasers flocked to the workshops. We can forgive a noble eccentricity, often standing alone in its unusual beauty, but we cannot understand Stainer’s artistic genius remaining content with the somewhat primitive, if not semi-barbaric, abrupt arching, a discrepancy nearly always likely to end in a lamentably thin tone after a certain number of years have passed by. It is a perplexing argument to follow the mazes of human labyrinths, and it adds to our confusion when attempts are made to reason things out, and we have no recourse but wonderment that this naturally ingenious maker (and a capable violinist), could not foresee the far future of his creations. Apart from the specific modelling no adverse criticism can be levelled at any single little bit of workmanship.
Productivity fairly prolific. Adopted three types of modelling - small, medium, and large, each constructed on entirely different mathematical principles to those of the Amatis. Measurements of the large and best model - body length about 14-1/8 inches; upper bouts 6-1/2; lower 8. Height of belly where the bridge stands, equally maintained for half the length of the instrument to the lower or broad part under the tailpiece, where it then depresses to the edge. Precisely similar under the finger-board towards the neck. Breadth of this raised portion is about the same as that of the bridge itself. This tableland is very thick in wood, stands very high, and falls abruptly near the sides, very noticeable in the vicinity of the sound-holes, so that when one places the instrument in a horizontal position and peers through the right one, the left will come into view. Belly arching often more pronounced than that of the back, and there is no beautiful graduation at any part. Thickness of wood not worked out in a circle, but in the form of an ellipse, the longer axis being in the direction of the length of the instrument. Thicknesses, linings, dimensions, and blccks all perfectly calculated according to his peculiar ideas - no element of guesswork whatsoever. Narrow purfling placed near the edge which is artistically thrown-up a little and gives a great touch of individuality, general appearance of the edge personifies strength and roundness. Sound-holes shorter and straighter than the Cremonese, with perfectly circular upper and lower (rather pronounced) curves - admirable conceptions. Small scroll, broad in front and rather short, finely shaped, smoothly carved, but insignificant looking in relationship to the general build of the instrument. Some rise freely in between sweeps of the peg-box leaving a large intermediate space between this and the head, He frequently indulged in relics of the past by substituting sculptured heads, favouring the lion’s or dragon’s head, also human and other heads, probably reproductions of the heads and crests of the patrons for whom he executed certain demands. At Gleirsch he found large quantities of a remarkable wood from a tree called “Haselfichte”, and this warm-looking hazel pine furnished the bellies for the majority of his instruments - a beautifully acoustical material of strong but perfectly straight fibre, narrow and wide. Backs and ribs invariably of the gorgeously flamed maple. Necks especially treated to pretty material. Remarkably fine varnish, approaching near to the Cremonese in brilliancy and transparency, of a golden-red (often rosy) shade, now sometimes deepened to a rich mahogany tint. Impressed with the beauty of the Italian instruments subjected to his inspection at the Royal residence, he most probably obtained the recipe or ingredients from Venice or Cremona. Certainly it is un-Tyrolean, and deserves the widely expressed panegyric it has always received. Tonal quality of his small and mediumsized instruments often nasal, thin, and shrill. That of the larger size, silvery and crystal clear on the E string, a mixture of oboe-clarinet tone on the A (in other words - a peculiar sharpness tempered by a slight warmth), deep and sonorous on the D and G. Never of a robust nature, moreover the G string of a few specimens is painfully thin and twangy. Genuine labels mostly always in manuscript (sometimes neat caligraphy, sometimes the reverse), and very seldom printed. Text generally as follows:
------------------------------------
Jacobus Stainer in Absom
prope Oenipontum fecit 1663
------------------------------------
Oenipontum is Latin for Innsbruck. No name in the violin realm has been more falsely tampered with, some labels being an absolute travesty of the original with regard to the wording. Other labels, printed in beautiful German lettering, have been inserted by unscrupulous dealers within any highly arched instruments that bear the slightest similarity to the original. Owing to the one-time uncertainty of Stainer’s year of death many imitations have been post-dated 1690 to 1720. Violin in the collection at the Brussels Conservatoire bears the following forgery -
-------------------------------------------
Jacobus Stainer Filius
in absam prope omni pontum 1558
-------------------------------------------
Several genuine Stainers unlabelled. Connoisseurs Voigt, Vuillaume, and Lentner have asserted that they have seen the following -
------------------------------------
Jacobus Stainer
in Absom prope Oenipontum
fecit Cremona Mora
------------------------------------
but it has never been definitely ascertained that he ever worked in Italy, and therefore is subject to the usual mass of conjecture regarding its authenticity.
Label in a ’cello:
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Jacobus Stainer
in Absam 1675
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Label of a violin in the Monastery of Stams:
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Jacobus Stiner
Cremonia, fecite 1642
----------------------------
Experts of undoubted integrity and capability have reasonably concluded the above to be a forgery.

VIOLINS
Tartini (composer of the Devil’s Trill Sonata), played on a beautiful large-sized specimen. Geminiani (famous follower of the Corelli school) used one for many years. During his long sojourn in England several makers of that period made interesting copies.
“The Duke of Edinburgh”, dated 1673. Of three-quarter size, large toned for such small dimensions, and of exquisite quality. Belly wood of beautifully fine grain, one-piece back of strikingly marked maple. Outstandingly brilliant varnish of a brownish yellow shade. Finely carved lion’s head. Given to the Duke (who practised upon it in boyhood) by his mother Queen Victoria. Acquired by Partello (famous American collector) and bought by Lyon & Healy of Chicago, 1921. Ultimately sold to an opulent art connoisseur for several thousand dollars.
Specimen owned by Mr. Waddell of Glasgow. Acquired by Wurlitzer 1929, and catalogued at 1,500 dollars. Rich golden brown varnish and handsome wood. Soprano-like tonal quality, brilliant and remarkably responsive.
One dated 1668, catalogued by Lyon & Healy at 4,000 dollars, 1925. Belly-wood of fine fibre, two-piece back of pretty material, with ribs in picturesque harmony. Sound-holes wide from top to bottom of stem and particularly good space between the wings and curves. Delightfully shaped waist curves. Rich golden-brown varnish.
Specimen dated 1662. Brownish-red varnish. Splendidly wooded, two-piece back. Catalogued at 1,000 dollars by Wurlitzer, 1930.
Specimen dated 1658. Acquired by Harry Dykes of London, 1910. Guaranteed by that expert to be genuine. Typical modelling, lion’s head, and superlatively fine varnish.
Specimen sold to a Russian nobleman at Dresden, 1876 for £400. Originally purchased from Stainer (on condition of giving him a pension and his dinner as long as he lived) by Count Trautmansdorf, Grand Equerry to the Emperor Charles VI.
One dated 1678. Sold at Puttick’s in London for £145 (1912). Supposed to have been rescued from a great theatre fire.
Small pocket violin in the Paris Conservatoire Collection. Inlaid with silver, also a richly carved head of a faun.
Two examples, dated 1677. Made for the St. Georgenberg Monastery. Unfortunately lost when the building was destroyed by fire, 1868. Generally regarded as the most magnificent things he ever conceived. One dated 1677 was originally owned by the Duke of Baden. Acquired by Dr. Uhl at Strasbourg. Body length 35.3 cm; upper bouts 16.5; lower 20.5; ribs 3.
One dated 1653. Made for the Damenstift Convent at Hall, now preserved at the local Cathedral.
One dated 1656, owned by Mozart. Presented by Stainer to the then reigning Prince of the Lobkowitz Estate in appreciation of the latter’s efforts in freeing him from prison where he had been incarcerated because of his Lutheran activities. Remained in the Collection at the Royal Castle near Prague until the youthful Mozart visited the Bohemian capital in 1786, when he attracted the notice of Lobkowitz and was honoured by being asked to accept the instrument for all his future performances. Returned to the Royal family after Mozart’s death. Acquired by Vlado Kolitsch (Croatian violin virtuoso) when the castle was dismantled, 1920. One belonging to Sivori (Italian virtuoso of the Paganini school). Remarkable for the peculiar silvery quality of the tone.
Twelve so-called “Elector” violins. Nine of these are claimed to be in America - one owned by Gemünder of New York having the greatest renown, but as the Monastery tale is somewhat mythical, the majority of these examples cannot be accredited as genuine Stainers.
One dated 1656 belonging to Josiah Williams of Birmingham, 1925. Guaranteed by Hill & Sons. Modelling somewhat Amatese, one-piece back marked by a small flame slanting downwards to the left, ribs of slightly larger flame, plain head, nut-brown varnish. Printed label.
One dated 1652 catalogued at 1,500 dollars by Carl Fischer (New York). Wood of wonderful quality, top of closely grained spruce, back of small curl maple, golden-brown varnish of soft texture.

VIOLAS
The “Posner” viola, dated 1670. Owned by a well-known collector of this name, resident in America, 1925. Perhaps the finest in the universe. Body length 16.11/16 inches; upper bouts 7.15/16; lower 9-5/8; ribs 1-1/2 full at broad end and 1.7/16 at the upper bouts. Splendidly proportioned yet comfortable for the performer. Golden-red varnish, wonderfully transparent and quite Cremonese in appearance. Tonal quality of fascinating purity and depth. Formerly in the possession of a Hungarian nobleman. Brought to England and found its way into the unique collection formed by Baron Knoop. Acquired by Hill & Sons from whom Posner purchased it.
Specimen owned by W. W. Cobbett (chamber-music enthusiast) of London. Body length 16 inches; ribs rather deep. Arching slightly flatter than usual and suggestive of the influence of an A. & H. Amati.
Viola-di-bordone, dated 1660. Preserved in the Vienna Museum.
Viola-bastarda, dated 1643. Sold by the maker to the Archbishop of Salzburg.

’CELLOS
Few known, and several connoisseurs have their doubts whether he actually built any, but it is indubitably certain he made viol-da-gambas some of which have been converted into ’cellos.
Carl Schröder (famous soloist and pedagogue) possessed a fine specimen dated 1671, certified by J. B. Vuillaume to be wholly genuine.
Measurements of a ’cello dated 1675: body length 29.4/5 inches; upper bouts 13-5/8; middle, 9-3/8; lower 17; ribs - upper 4-5/8, lower 4.13/16; from inner notch of sound-hole to top of body, 16-1/4 inches. Characteristic outline and very high arching. Well carved scroll, cut rather deeply, with the turn left small. Deep shade of golden-brown varnish.

DOUBLE-BASSES
Of very great rarity. One dated 1677, remained with the Lobkowitz family at the Roudnic Castle for nearly two hundred years. Three others of small size are known. £300 up to £850 for good specimen.

STANLEY, CARLTON F.
Descendant of a family of violin makers (Liberty Stanley, born 1776 - Grandfather C.F., and Uncle F.O.). Resident at Newton Centre (Mass) 1920. Made 600 violins, violas and ’cellos up to year 1942. Superb modelling, a tonic for the eyes. Pure oil varnish of own formula. Splendid uniformity of tone, not a drowsy note from top to bottom.
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Stanley
Newton. Mass.
19. . No.
-------------------
(large S curled round a violin)
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C. F. Stanley
Newton. Mass.
193. No.
-------------------
(with similar design)

STEFANINI, GIUSEPPE
Born 1908. Pupil of Vistoli. Resident at Lugo di Romagna. Individualistic modelling, reddish yellow spirit varnish until 1950; then oil varnish of own formula.
-------------------------
Stefanini Giuseppe
Fece in Lugo, 1950
-------------------------
(with signature)

STELZNER, DR. ALFRED
Devoted himself at an early age to the study of the violin, and made rapid progress towards proficiency in technique. Was destined for a scientific career, and went to the Heidelberg University to study mathematics and physics. Seriously applied himself to finding a solution to the Cremona tone problems. Commenced by enquiring into the nature of sound, how and where it originated and developed in violins, also its emission. Experimented with ideas concerning the oscillation of air molecules producing sound waves in the body of the instrument, quantity of tone depending on their energetic action, and quality determined to a very great extent by the coincidence of their foci (centring points). Decided that these conditions could only be achieved by abandoning the semi-circular form of the outline in favour of the “ellipse” and the “parabola”. Went to Weisbaden, 1891, and had the assistance of Wiedemann in the construction of these new form violins. Established at Dresden 1896. Committed suicide 1906. Familiar pattern modified by altering the circular sections in the outline of the upper and lower part to ellipses, while the bouts take a parabolic shape - latter form also given to the end blocks inside, thus eschewing the older ones of round shape which, according to Stelzner, interfered with sound-wave vibration. Ribs much higher between the bouts than the old Italian, and taper off parabolically towards the upper and lower of the body, but most towards the neck. Flat pattern table, cut perfectly straight, and pressed down on to this parabolic outline of the ribs in glueing it on. Fibres of the wood, expanding thereby, are supposed to answer more readily to the vibrations of sounds within. Stelzner also thought that heretofore the sound-holes had only been considered from an aesthetical viewpoint, and that the old masters failed to appreciate the fact that the part of the table which projects between the rounded-off ends and the middle parts of the sound-holes forms a kind of vibrating tongue. Therefore he altered their shape by enlarging this tongue to about five or six times its original shape, whereby came increased emission and strengthening of tone. He claimed a tonal quality equal to the Cremona in purity, and surpassingly superior in strength and freedom. Attributed everything to the fact that the instruments were constructed according to the strict laws of acoustics which well nourished the overtones and gave unexampled brilliance. Secured the co-operation of famous virtuosi such as Rappoldi, Wilhelmj, and Sauret, to publicly exploit his “wondrous” innovated violins. Also invented the Cellone and Violotta to enrich modern chamber music. Violotta tuned an octave lower than the violin, and of the same length as the ordinary viola. Cellone tuned an octave lower than the violotta, thus standing as low as the three-stringed bass but of greater tonal flexibility, and about one inch longer than a full-sized ’cello. Works were composed by Draeseke and others for performance with the Stelzner quintet (two violins, viola, violotta, and cellone), and the nobility of uniform tone fascinated everybody.
---------------------------
No 330 Dresden 1899
Dr. Alfred Stelzner
---------------------------

STIRRAT, DAVID
Worked at Edinburgh 1810-1820. Most interesting instruments, and record considerable advance on many previous Scottish. Purely artistic outline based on the Stradivarian. Bouts and waist curves well balanced. Arching slightly modified from the original model. Margins and purfling effectively carried out. Attractive sound-holes with a nicely conceived central aperture. Scroll of fairly noble aspect. Workmanship finished most carefully. Well chosen woods rather plentifully used. Spirit varnish of dark reddish or yellow tint, and not thickly applied. Fresh, bright and vigorous tonal quality, also a modicum of sweetness.
--------------------
D. Stirrat Fecit
Edinburgh 1810
--------------------
Sometimes printed, and sometimes on the bare wood in tremulous writing indicative of the maker’s growing infirmity. £70, 1960.

STONEMAN, HENRY
Born at Zeal Monachorum (Devon), 1856. Apprenticed to the joinery and cabinetmaking trade. Worked over 20 years for an ecclesiastical building firm at Exeter. Relinquished this calling, 1903, in order that he might devote his energies and natural aptitude to violin construction, an art which from early youth, always strongly fascinated him. All leisure hours during the years engaged in cabinetmaking were utilised to become more proficient etc. as a violin maker. Bought all the good fiddles he could afford, studied their differences, and so stepped on to an ever widening path to a high degree of structural and scientific knowledge. Having attained all possible French cunning etc. in the restoration of old instruments his services were so frequently requisitioned as to materially affect any prolific productivity of his own new instruments. Total output up to year 1925 only amounted to twelve, and each exemplifies painstaking care in every detail of workmanship. Principally Stradivarian modelling, two only following the Guarnerian, all of bold outline but not at the sacrifice of elegance. Scroll and sound-holes have gracefully flowing lines well harmonising with the rest. Very worthy productions, results of conscientious thought and skill of a keen whole-hearted enthusiast. Early instruments varnished with Whitelaw’s ruddy-brown preparation, but to the later ones he applied the superior orange-red varnish of Dr. Inglis Clark.
-----------------------
Henry Stoneman
Exeter
No 10. Fecit 1923
Devonia
-----------------------
(on vellum)
Each instrument bears a special name:
(1) Boucher - a striking personality, an old friend, and an art collector. Belly wood taken from the wind-chest of an ancient organ.
(2) Isca - ancient name of Exeter. Made 1915.
(3) Hayward - his wife’s maiden name.
(4) Sempre Fidelis - Exeter City Arms.
(5) Marlborough - named after a one-time Dean of Exeter.
(6) Echo of the Exe - belly from a beam taken from an old house on the banks of the River Exe. Though made more or less as a curio, the tonal quality reaches a useful standard.
(7) Redvers Buller - in remembrance of this Exonian General who came into prominence during the Boer War.
(8) St. Peter - after the Cathedral.
(9) The Harold - name of a cherished friend.
(10) Devonia - his county.
All instruments except (1) and (6) made from finely seasoned Italian woods. Received £10 for (1), and £40 for (10).

STORIONI, CARLO
Worked at Cremona, 1800-1810. Inherited the name but not the art of a Storioni. Grand-Stradivarius modelling, designed without elegance. Scrolls with widely projecting boss, miserably suggesting the Bergonzi influence. Reddish brown spirit varnish too opposed to flexibility. Tonal quality powerful but devoid of beauty.
---------------------------
Carolus Storioni
fecit Cremonae, 1805
---------------------------

STORIONI, CARLO
“Trade” violins involving the expenditure of the comparatively small sums of five to eight pounds, and as such they are productive of favourable results in tone. Dated as from Cremona, 1888-1900. Reddish amber varnish. Label - copper-plate, having a design on left and right with the word “registered” underneath. £20, 1960.
----------------------------
Carlo Storioni
Cremonensis Faciebat
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STORIONI, LORENZO
Born at Cremona, 1751. Worked at 3, Contrada Coltellai. Died there, 1802. The last of the Cremonese makers to evince any powers of originality, and the starting point of the gradual decadence of that school. Every line of modelling indicates his anxiety to meet the increasingly greater demand for strength and robust sonority of tone. Modelled many instruments after the long and wide proportions of a kind of Stradivarian design, but not always consistent with ideal grace. Occasionally the Bergonzi traits appealed to his highly cultivated conception of Herculean strength, but those bearing a resemblance to the Guarnerius are his most valued productions - these being very handsome as a rule. Workmanship (not so refined as that of famous predecessors in that little town) is at least always attractive, but suggests incompleteness rather than finished art, though there is never an absence of individuality at any point. Purfling (often narrow and running quite near the edge) affords striking evidence of insufficient self-criticism in its roughish inaccuracy of steadiness. Love of microscopic exactitude in cutting a scroll, is one that captivates most makers. Apparently Storioni did not possess this faculty to any great degree, and no scrolls of his are known that have not a strong element of unaccountable stiffness. Also never settled as to the shape and position of the sound-holes, and it is scarcely possible to find two instruments having these cut absolutely alike. Variable too in the selection of wood, particularly in point of vein, which is more often wide than narrow, but seemingly of unusually fine acoustical properties. Seldom bothered to secure handsome material for backs and ribs, apparently regarding straightness or beauty of flame as totally unimportant. Used a spirit varnish of a golden yellow shade with a reddish tinge, somewhat of hard surface more approaching the Neapolitan rather than the Cremonese, and much of it appears to have sunk into the wood. Best period, 1773-1795. Made instruments for important personages, having the edges and scroll embellished by black and white pearl inlay. Finest instruments have an altogether noble tone, completely full and sonorous, and also of silvery sweetness at times. Catalogued at £400, 1932 and worth more. One example of Guarnerian type, dated 1774, realised 5000 dollars in the U.S.A., 1930. Vieuxtemps achieved many of his virtuoso successes on a Storioni. Scores of instruments, comparatively of undignified design and rough workmanship, bear his label but it is highly probable that he had no hand in their creation. Some of his later violins have the backs lighter varnished than the tops. Only a few violas known. Body length, 15.12/16 inches. Produced several magnificently toned ’cellos which are enormously high priced. Finally several four-stringed double-basses are noted for their remarkable flexibility and sonority of tone.
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Laurentius Storioni fecit
Cremonae. 1793
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Laurentius Storioni Cremonensis
fecit Anno 17. .
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Laurentius Storioni restauravit
Cremonae 1780
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Sometimes branded “L.S.” also “S” on the peg-box. Also stated that he worked at Turin for a short time. Many trade violins of Tyrolese emanation, small model, not very high arching, owing to a depression from sides, wide purfling, pretty wood for backs, squat sound-holes, unattractive scroll, yellow-brown varnish. £800, 1960.
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Lorenzi Storioni
fecit anno 1786. Cremona
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STOSS, IGNAZ
Son and pupil of Eustace. Worked at St. Pölten, 1813. Only a few violins known, distinguished by the transparency of the reddish varnish. Built several ’cellos of three-quarter size, highly praised by connoisseurs.

STOTT, GEORGE THEODORE
Born at Yarley (Somerset), 1870. Took up violin making as a hobby, worried an overworked mind, taxed an often over-tired body, became infatuated with the art, and decided to become a professional. Settled at Liverpool, 1900. Died 1953. Modelling exclusively Stradivarian. Oil varnish, generally of golden-yellow shade, but also of red occasionally. Produced about 60 violins, violas, and ’cellos up to year 1925. Experimented to find the secret of the old Italian makers, regards varnish solely as a means of protection, and concluded that the problem lies entirely in the construction. Accomplished many successes in repairing, and his talents fortunately saved him from spells of inactivity.
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George T. Stott
Musical Instrument Maker, Liverpool
Fecit Anno 19. .
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STRADIVARI, ANTONIO
Born 1644 at Bergamo, Italy. Died 18th December, 1737. Son of Alessandro Stradivari (born 1602), and Anna B. Moroni. Original name of his forefathers was Stradiverti. They were a distinguished family who had resided in Cremona for many years. The year of birth, 1644, of the master has been positively determined by Stradivari himself in a violin built in 1737 which bears the inscription “d’Anni 93”. He was buried in the Rosary Chapel of San Domenico Cathedral, Cremona. Most of the information concerning Stradivari has been obtained from labels contained in the instruments he made, from notes he wrote himself, and from surviving memoirs taken down by Count Gozia and Marquis Rolande della Valle. Stradivari’s assiduity is proved by the large number of instruments he made, details and history of which will be found in Antonio Stradivari - (written by the author of this Dictionary), - Amati Publishing Ltd. (1960).

STRADIVARI, FRANCESCO
Son and pupil of Antonio. Born at Cremona 1671. Died 1743. Worked with his father until the latter’s death, then with his brother Omobono. There is an obvious demarcation line separating the workmanship and design of the father’s and son’s instruments. The younger could not cope with the illustrious and inimitable elder. Nevertheless, the productions of the former offer much in the way of structural solidity and beauty, though here and there we get touches of heaviness. Outline and arching completely graceful and quite Stradivarian. Edging splendidly rounded. Strong looking margins. Bold scroll, somewhat original, but possibly the least truly artistic part of instrument. Sound-holes seem less squarely cut than those of his father, though not in any particular defiance to those beautiful principles. Magnificent varnish of a golden-brown with reddish tinge, of glorious transparency and soft texture, applied with great perception of harmonious colour. Fine curly maple always signalises the backs. Tonal quality quite sonorously rich, having remarkable penetrative force as well as the softer “singing” timbre. Instruments dated from 1738 possibly partly constructed bodies left by father. Catalogued at £300, 1920. One specimen realised 4,000 dollars in the U.S.A. Also produced a few magnificent violas which evidence no enunciation of fanciful whims but are almost replicas of the dominating characteristics of his parent’s instruments, and have obtained the greatest admiration from all connoisseurs.
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Franciscus Stradivarius sub disciplina
A. Stradivarii 1700
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Franciscus Stradivarius Cremonensis
filius Antonii faciebat Anno 1742
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Genuine examples not easily identified owing to substitution of father’s labels. £1,500 and upwards (1960).

STRAUB, JOSEF
Son of Simon (2). Worked at Röthenbach 1783-1811. Modelling of considerable breadth and moderately high arching. Nothing especially graceful, though never inelegant. Dark varnish susceptible to streakiness.

STRIEBIG, JEAN
Born 1910. Established at Mirecourt 1935. Splendid individualistic models, in addition to admirable copies of standard types.
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Jean Striebig. Maître Luthier
8, Rue Estivant, Mirecourt (Vosges)
No. . . . Année 19. .
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STRELLINI
Name given to violins made by a noted Parisian maker, 1925. Entirely produced by hand, and of exquisite finish. Judiciously chosen belly wood of narrow and strong fibre, and lovely material for backs. Varnish (prepared on some newly discovered Cremona basis) of translucent constitution and velvety warm tints, not only showing up the wood undulations, but materially affecting the vibrations. Distinctive personality to each instrument, through a unique method of varying the shades of varnish. Tonal brilliance and sonority comparable with any modern violin.
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Strellini H/S. 29, Rue
No.- Paris, le - de Rome
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STRNAD, CASPAR
Born 1752. Died 1823. Pupil of Hulinzky. Worked at Prague. Complete embodiment of strength and refinement in the design. Body length generally 14.3/16 inches. Everything very ingeniously harmonised. Outline somewhat reminiscent of the large Stradivarius. Arching however commences its slight rise a little sooner than the Italian, a characteristic Bohemian trait. Fine breadth across upper and lower bouts, also a fairly wide waist. Splendidly rounded edges and purfling placed very close. Scroll inspired by the Stainer, harmony of line not always there, and generally lacking in dignity. Small sound-holes endowed with artistry, and admirably posed. Frequently fire grained belly wood, and backs of the loveliest broad flame. Wonderful dark shade of reddish-brown oil varnish on a golden ground, completely translucent, occasionally a lighter tinted golden blown. Along this particular route various qualifications are required, imagination, abstract faculties, great knowledge of the application, and a special sense of the picturesque. Strnad had them all, and the one-piece backs of his instruments have a gorgeous appearance. One of the first at Prague to discard the Stainer bulge and follow somewhat warily in the trend of the Cremonese. Tonal quality never quite good enough for soloists. £30, 1920. Produced several violas, usually regarded as more impressive in tonal beauty than the violins. Also ’cellos, double-basses, and guitars. £70, 1960.
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Caspar Strnad
Fecit Pragae Anno 1793
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(with design in centre of a lute and viol crossed)
Small wreath encircling the letters “C.S.” under surname.
Several German factories turn out hundreds of marvellous replicas of the Strnad violins at small cost.

STÜBER, JOHANN
Born in Swabia 1888. Established at The Hague 1921. Won diploma at local exhibition 1949. At first, Strad and Guarnerian modelling, later his own combining characteristics of both. Golden-brown varnish. Name usually inscribed in ink with date and city on top and back inside, instead of label.

STÜMPEL. H. C.
Born 1838. Worked at Minden (Westphalia), 1860-1900. By acquaintance with books and the many theories therein, his mind was opened, views enlarged, and curiosity excited. Incited to travel to Italy for the purpose of further enlightenment. Had the discernment of comparing the different schools of violin structure in that country, and delved into the various traditions of the old masters. After return to Westphalia however, he gradually cultivated a passion for novelty and singularity, and, to gratify this inborn avidity of human nature, he began a series of experiments. Many proved absurd and exploded his imaginings, and naturally were relinquished as puerilities. Ultimately arrived at the goal aimed at, and brought out “tone violins” to which he claimed to have imparted Italian tonal quality. Retained outline and arching set up by Stradivarius and Guarnerius, but applied an entirely new system of thicknesses, circulatory means of vibration, and certain innovations concerning the bass bar. Turned out truly well designed instruments and set the public crazy by offering them at the excessively small price of forty shillings. Astonishing productivity of a rapid and ingenious craftsman. Every detail of workmanship satisfied the dictates of the connoisseur’s critical delicacy, but tonally the instruments were found to only have the ordinary emission of the new. Almost exclusively used balsam pine for the belly as he thought it allowed quicker vibration. Did not make any violins after the year 1900. Invented various appliances for makers, including compasses to measure wood thicknesses.
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H. C. Stümpel
M i W
1893
Facon Pablo de Sarasate
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(with diagram representing the inside of belly graduated in ovals and circles, with a thick dark bass-bar line to illustrate his pet theories).
Other models bear the names “Facon Bagatella” (high bellied), “Guarnerius”, “Stradivarius”, “Faust” (very flat), “Joachim” (medium arching), “Vieuxtemps” etc. £45, £65, £85 according to model, 1960.

SÜSS
see SUESS.

SUZUKI, MASAKICHI
Largest manufacturer of stringed instruments in the Orient (1920). Early days chiefly occupied in making native instruments such as koto and samisen. In 1884 an ordinary violin was taken as a curiosity to his country, and from this he created the first violin actually made in Japan. Established three factories at Nagoya, 1890-1930, and produced very large numbers of violins, bows, and mandolines, employing about one thousand workmen to operate the various machines specially built and designed for this particular work. Maple wood used for backs and ribs, tables of red pine of Hokkaido. Outline somewhat Stradivarian; thickly wooded. Brown varnish with greenish touches. Exhibited at Chicago 1893, and won praise for his work. Also won gold medal at Philadelphia, 1927.
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Masakichi Suzuki
No 3455 Nagoya 1926
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SZEPESSY, BÉLA
Born at Budapert 1856. Apprenticed to Nemessányi - worked for Zach at Vienna, came to London 1881. Died in the Tyrol 1925. Magnificent modelling, mostly Guarnerian of robust character, also Stradivarian, and occasionally an Amati. Workmanship absolutely flawless. Varnish of particularly soft texture, flaming red, yellowish-red, and ruddy brown, often applied in a very original manner, conceived some remarkable variegated colour schemes. Superb tonal strength, only to be properly appreciated by future generations. Also large and deep-ribbed violas, wonderful tone though perhaps slightly lacking in flexibility. £80, 1960.
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Szeppessy Béla
London 1888 +
Sz+B
No. 48
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Szepessy Béla
London 1889 +
No. + 146
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