Worked at Rome 1900-1910. Style and workmanship synonymous with mediocrity. Indifferent wood, often with twists in the grain. Poor yellow varnish exactly suitable for its surroundings. £65, 1960.
Carolus Tarasconi
No. 36 fecit Romae, 1903

Double-bass player at Saronno (near Milan) 1888-1920. Modelling of rather forbidding aspect, dangerously near those factory-type instruments which deserve not to be promulgated. Outline and arching completely liberal in things which repel. Proportions generally too large. Scroll furnishes the one good point above wholesale mediocrity. Indifferently cut sound-holes, one feels a desire to cut off a tiny portion of the wings. Light yellow or pale golden shades of varnish. Orchestral tone of the vitiated order. £85, 1960.
Guiseppe Tarasconi G.T.
Saronno-Milano. Anno 1898 S.M.

Born 1904. Amateur. Resident at Exmouth (Devon). Presented a violin and viola at The Hague Exposition. 1949.

Worked at Sheffield 1865-1899. Occupied seven different premises during those years. Dealer in musical instruments, also a double-bass player. Violins of strong construction and rather full arching. Sound-holes rather adroitly cut. Scroll done by a bold hand, shows character, and hardly any defect. Golden-brown varnish of good substance and hue. Made several orchestral double-basses of strong tone, but workmanship not first-class.

Born 1809. Double-bass player at Manchester. Took out several patents concerning organs. Became a prominent socialist at the latter part of life. Also known as a photographer. Made his first double-bass in 1834. Worked (assisted by sons) until 1886. Died 1892. Produced 200 or more double-basses, instruments greatly favoured by theatre players in the North and Midlands, also a fair number of violins, violas and ’cellos. Very diligent worker, especially skilful with the large instruments, and the appreciation he found encouraged him towards an artistic ideal.

Worked at Stroppiano until 1883. Subsequently at Bielta. Ordinary modelling, solid construction, but rather hasty workmanship.

Born 1867. Pupil of W. Meisel. Established at Erlbach (Saxony) 1889. Developed into a factory under the name of Eduard Tauscher and Co., 1908. Early instruments have top plates made from century-old roof beams. First-class productivity of trade violins, 1926 - various grades affording considerable freedom of choice among the standard models.
Eduard Tauscher & Co. Model
Geigenbaustatt Stradivari
Erlbach - Markneukirchen

Born 1841. Lived at Lewiston (Maine, U.S.A.) Died 1923. Had an innate love of music and an inherited skill in wood carving. Played violin and cornet in Ballard’s College Orchestra at Lewiston, and enthusiasm for the former instrument caused him to critically examine the exterior and interior structure of old master specimens, thus acquired knowledge to venture on exploits of his own. Some instruments outlined from the Grand Stradivarius, others from the Guamerius third period. Naturally felt he must make certain variations somewhere in order not to be termed a copyist, so he graded the interior from own ideas of tone vibration, an operation proving highly successful. Workmanship escapes from all touches of pupilage style, artistry carried to its highest elevation in the sound-holes, scroll, and purfling. Used own oil varnish which has been eulogised by critics as a true reproduction of the Stradivarian cherry-brown-yellow and the Guarnerian golden-red. Tonal quality combines rich fullness with the expressive and farcarrying. Réményi and other soloists visiting the U.S.A. often exhibited their technical prowess on these instruments, and spoke of them as the “glory” of that country.
Made by Nathan S. Taylor
19 . . Lewiston, Me.
(decorative border)
Some instruments bear autograph but no label. First specimen dated 1865.

Resident at Leicester 1917-1927. Wood carving propensities and aspiring mind first found their outlet in modified Stradivarian designs. Splendid outline with a slight divergency from the older model in waist-curves. Moderate arching, but sometimes the rise is carried further than customary in a longitudinal direction but not toward the sides. Other models have Guarnerian characteristics, though not absolute replication. Edging generally very substantial, but with a nice avoidance of heaviness. Finely broad scrolls kindling the true spirit of originality, and eloquently artistic. Excellently shaped sound-holes, faultlessly cut, of good length, especially arresting wings, but notches slightly too pronounced. Purfling of bold character and conducted accurately. Thicknessing of plates graduated in accordance with the old principles, a medium scientifically superior to the visionary schemes and projects of any moderns. All instruments have plenty of wood in essential parts, and none is over twenty years seasoning. Generally one-piece backs of very handsome material. Oil varnish of own preparation which has taken several years to perfect. Shades of orange yellow and reddish-brown. Tonal quallty quite responsive, and not having the ephemeral mellowness caused by faking, it will travel all the quicker along the road leading to legitimate maturity. Made a special study of viola construction, and achieved marked success in a particularly bright yet deep tone. Body length 16-3/8 inches. Produced several fine-toned ’cellos designed from a Bergonzi. Also exercised his art on bow making, and received a number of testimonies regarding their excellence. Label - a very artistic design of his own, bearing (in red) the Leicester Coat-of-Arms. £75; Violas and ’cellos £90, 1960.
Robert Taylor
5 Ann St., Leicester
Anno 1925

Born at Salzburg (Austria) 1666. Went to Venice about 1699, but the citizens there were too antagonistic for his peaceful nature, so he had to leave or starve. Chose the former course, and proceeded to Cremona where he tried to make fraternal friendship and gain insight into the style of the Cremonese. Soon left, and wended his way towards Rome, where he found a different atmosphere of welcome. Returned to Venice, 1711, but after two years retraced his steps to Rome and worked there until 1743. Various spellings of his name - Techler, Tekler, Dechler, and Deckler. Considered an excellent maker whose instruments are rather highly valued. Modelling altered considerably according to environment and progressive ingenuity. Salzburg productions all favour the highly arched Tyrolese style, but more particularly in the outline and sound-holes rather than the scroll and varnish. Venetian specimens slightly reduced in arching, but retain much of the Tyrolese character. Roman examples altogether superior to the others. Built more approximately to the Grand Amati design, though perhaps fuller developed and slightly broader. At any rate, one simultaneously viewing the Tyrolese and Rome instruments, finds it difficult to recognise the distinctive differentiations as the work of the same man. Easily the best maker in Rome during his entire period. Instruments displaying massively moulded corners and margins, the former being characteristically long. Appearance rather verging on the noble. Sound-holes rather broadly slanted, often too widely opened at centre, and sometimes somewhat short, betraying Tyrolese training. However, he occassionally reduced the width. Scroll has a certain individuality, and is on the whole, well conceived and nicely executed, but the slender cutting of the peg-box near throat is a noticeable peculiarity not altogether to be admired. Generally plentifully wooded, but thicknesses not always beautifully regulated. Purfiing often broad and splendidly accurate. Backs and ribs frequently of handsome material. Golden-brown and golden-red shades of varnish, sometimes very luxuriant, at other times looking as though he had thinly rubbed something semi-opaque over it. Tonal quality variable, some quite powerful and brilliant, others less so but rather mellow. Produced about 50 ’cellos, now eagerly sought for on account of the full sonority of tone. Specimen dated 1721, body length 76 cm; upper bouts 35; lower 44.8. Double-basses perhaps of greater value.
David Tecchler Liutaro
fecit Romae Anno 1703
David Techler fecit
Rom. 1710
David Tecchler fecit
Rome, Anno Dni 1721
David Techler fecit
an Dni 1743
aetatis suae 77
Violin £650, ’cellos £850, double-bass £1,000, 1960.

Bows made by C. A. Reichel at Markneukirchen. Brazilian wood imitated to have the appearance of Pernambuco. Rather heavy at saddle. Not refined work. Whale-bone lapping with leather finishes. Stamped “Techler”. £8, 1960.

Eldest son and pupil of Carlo Giuseppe. Born 1687. Worked at the “Sign of the Eagle” (dell’ Aquila), Milan 1710-1765. A more prolific maker than father. Copied the Amati, Stradivarius and Guarinerius, more frequently the latter - in each case with certain modifications not altogether enhancing the general contour. Body length sometimes only 13-1/2 inches. Abundant evidence of rough workmanship, a procedure which seems definitely intended rather than from inability. Scrolls occasionally of really fine shape but more often of the type that merits severe ctiricism. Purfling generally uncertain in evenness (all the family had this failing), and leaves a disturbing impression. Some instruments have no purfling. Good tone wood for bellies, also excellent material for backs, but seldom finely flamed. Golden-yellow varnish shading into brown, a sort of orange-brown of thick constitution and little gleam. Occasionally a deeper reddish-brown. Tonal quality often quite full and remarkably resonant, but never of true Italian sympathetic timbre.
Violas recognised as superior to violins. ’Cellos yet finer, of full arching, handsome material, and a tonal quality of rich mellowness and far carrying power. £350; ’Cellos and violas £450, 1960.
Carlo Antonio Testore figlio maggiore
del fû Carlo Giuseppe in Contrada
larga al segno dell’ Aquila, Milano, 1741
Branded C.A.T. with a circle containing the double-eagle device on the back, outside and inside. Worked in his last years with his son Giovanni.
Carlo Antonio e Giovanni padre e figlio
Testori, il qual Carlo e figlio maggiore
del fû Carlo Giuseppe Testore, abitanti
in Contrada larga al segno dell’ aquila.
Milano, 1764

Born at Novara (Italy) 1660. Went to Milan about 1683. Worked with Grancino. Died 1738. The most conspicuous member of the family, but did not produce a very large number of instruments. Several of his Grancino-Amati models have been re-labelled, and sold as genuine Grancinos. Others have occasionally been attributed to Guarnerius. Modelling varies very considerably, but touches of Amati influence predominate. Generally of medium dimenslons, body length 13-3/4 inches, moderate arching. The slight slant in waist-curves foreshadow what is now known as the Guamerian. Occasionally wrought an elegatit and picturesque design but never reached ideality. Without being over-enthusiastic concerning the workmanship, we much acknowledge that it is strong and conscientious though never immaculate in finish. He needed stirring up after certain lapses into a kind of careless go-as-you-please spate, yet seemingly sure-handed style, and should have been encouraged to bestow more critical revision on what was so plainly excellent, and he could have easily stepped into artistry of refinement. Wood always more carefully chosen for tonal resonance rather than appearance. Backs seldom favoured with material other than that of a very slight figure, or quite plain, and this applies also to the ribs. Bellies sometimes of a broad mottled grain. Scrolls generally flat and pinched, but also of pretty swing. Sound-holes somewhat pointed, again foreshadowing the well-known characteristic of a Guarnerius. Purfling generally inaccurate, some unpurfled. Plainness of wood not especially enhanced with its covering of brownish-yellow or yellow with red-brown shading varnish, generally applied thinly and verging on the coldly dull. Tonal quality remarkably powerful, very spontaneous under the bow of a stroke-freedom soloist, far carrying and round, though its sympathetic qualities are sometimes questionable. Violas of medium arching, body length 15-3/4 inches, light golden-brown varnish, and finely free tone. ’Cellos almost invariably of pear-tree wood for backs, bellies of splendid tonal pine (even though a knot here and there sometimes exhibits itself), and bold scrolls of beech wood. Body length 29-1/4 inches, upper bouts 13-7/8; lower 17. Brown varnish with a slight yellow tinge. Also produced several basses of small model, all having a magnificent tone. Favourite instruments of several Italian virtuosi.
Carlo Giuseppe Testore allievo
di Gio. Grancino in Contrada
Larga di Milano, 1690
Carlo Giuseppe Testore in Con
trada larga di Milano, al
signo dell’ aquila, 1710
Some instruments branded with the Royal Double-Eagle emblem around the label, mostly found in the ’cellos. Also occasionally branded on button at top of back. Violin dated 1708, body length 35.5 cm; upper bouts 16.8; lower 20.6; length of waist curves, 7.9. £650; ’cellos £800, 1960.

Born 1690, Son of Carlo Giuseppe. Worked at Milan until 1759. Style and workmanship somewhat similar to the father’s, though possibly less good. Produced a large number of instruments, but comparatively few seem to have his label. Modelling of medium proportions, moderate arching, semi-Guarnerian sound-holes and waist curves - insignificant scroll. Quite commonly omitted purfling, very occasionally applied to top plates, and substituted black lines on bottom plates. Several instruments purfled by later hands. Generally poor and unflamed wood, belly material often of wide grain. Pale yellow shade of thin varnish seldom nicely applied, occasionally one of better quality with a tinge of brown in it. Tonal quality which causes a soloist to oscillate between satisfaction and disappointment, gratified with its undoubted resonance and power, but desiring greater purity. Produced lutes and guitars of quite superior style. Some excellent violas known - body length 16-1/2 inches.
Paolo Antonio Testore
Milan 17 . .
Paolo Antonio Testore
figilo de Carlo Giuseppe Testore in
Contrada larga di Milano
al segno dell’ aquila, 1759
Also branded with the double eagle. £450, 1960.

Born at Caen 1777. Worked with Koliker at Paris 1796. Established own premises at 24 rue Montmartre, 1807; and in the rue Rameau, 1810. Died at Saint-Mandé (near Paris) 1856. Stradivarian modelling rather reminiscent of the Lupot style. Instruments that soon attracted the fastidious French by a slight innovation of the sides for which he claimed amelioration of tone. This novel procedure consisted in giving to the edges, at the junction of the corners, a flat surface of about an eighth of an inch, thus contributing to the aspect of heaviness complained of by some connoisseurs. Margins quiet and finished-looking. Sound-holes rather reminiscent of the straight inner cut of the Rogerius. Purfling very accurate. Scroll graphically shows his ability for exquisite curvature not so deep or so long as many French conceptions. Beautifully upswept volute. Tonal quality quite of Italian purity, and far carrying. Varnish mostly red-mahogany with a very slight tinge of brilliant brick-red, others show a peculiar richness of colouring in a very transparent red on an amber ground, occasionally tried other shades. Some specimens re-labelled with Lupot’s name. £126, 1960.
Nouveau procédé approuve par l’Institut
Thibout, Luthier, rue Rameau T
No. 8. à Paris. 1835 J. P
Au Roi David
Thibout, Luthier de l’Academie Royale de Musique
Rue Rameau, No. 8, à Paris

Born at Mouttes 1833. Worked at Mirecourt and Paris. Became sole proprietor of various factories at Mirecourt, and gradually substituted mechanical for manual labour. Exhibited in 1873 at Vienna his famous machinery-made violins priced at 4/-, 8/- and 16/- each. Awarded medals in every country. Honoured with the Chevalier of the Legion of Honour ribbon, 1877. The firm continued to prosper and expand, and almost innumerable types of violins, branded or labelled with the various names of workmen or made-up ones, circulate throughout the world. Directors in 1930 were Acoulon and Blondelet (see under these names). Label of his independent work at Paris -
J. Thibouville-Lamy
70 rue Réaumur
Paris 1886
Generally excellent transcepts of the Stradivarius model. Reddish-brown varnish. “Thibouville-Lamy, T & L”, sometimes branded where label is usually placed. Labels of first productions at the factory -
d’après A. Stradivarius
(1) Second line a facsimile of his signature. Also bears a trade-mark. (2) A lyre surrounded by an aura under which are the letters J.T.L. This well-known label is now used for the “Sarasate” instruments made at Mirecourt. Special manufacture of double-basses at £90, 1930.

see THIR.

Worked at Mirecourt and Paris, 1850. Good design (Guamerian but larger), and ordinary workmanship offering confidence that a strong tone will proceed therefrom. Branded “Thiery à Paris”, or “Fait par Thiery Luthier/23 Rue Mantorgueil à Paris” written on the interior; or “Thierry” branded on belly. £80, 1960.

Born at Steingaden (Bavaria). Worked at Vienna before settling at Pressburg, 1750. Died 1796. Imitated the high modelling of Stainer with authoritative intent. Workmanship to be estimated as moderately refined. Achieved more skilful smartness with the scroll. Often very prettily figured material. Early instruments treated to an indifferent varnish now unpleasantly dark and opaque. Later specimens covered with a warm and fiery reddish-brown.
Antonius Thir, Lauten
und Geigenmacher
in Prespurg Anno 1762
Sometimes wrote name as Dirr. £75, 1960.

Born 1767. Second son of Anton (1). Worked at Schönbach before joining father at Pressburg. Died 1799. Copied the style of father’s instruments, and used same label. Though the workmanship has not the same ability, the two have been easily confused, and detracted a little prestige from the elder’s actual work. £45, 1960.

Born 1765. Son of Mathias. Worked at Vienna 1790-1837. Broad but pretty Stradivarian modelling with arching of very slight gradient, though the strong edging is perhaps over-strained. Real taste further exemplified in the warmlooking cherry varnish of darkish tinge, sometimes of orange shade. Top wood of strong and even fibre, one-piece backs of charmingly figured material. Rich tonal quality of considerable far-carrying character. Also made attractive guitars.
Antonius Thier filius Mathias
fecit Viennae, Anno 1812
Always spelt his name Thier. £70, 1960.

Born 1783. Worked at Vienna 1810-1848. Chose to spell his name Tirr so as not to be confused with Anton (3). Copied the Geissenhof-Stradivarian style. Faultless arching and especially delicate edging on instruments made after 1815. Pretty wood and very smooth workmanship. Reddish-brown varnish, sometimes a finer red on yellow ground. Did not make many instruments, but on the few he did present he bestowed most loving care and was probably disinclined to part with them as they were unknown to the Viennese for several years. £80, 1960.
Antonius Tirr
fecit Viennae 1815

Worked at Vienna from 1738. Died 1781. Model strikingly narrow and long. High Stainer-like arching with its consequent groove - but some instruments dated from 1775 have it reduced to medium height. Large but prettily cut scrolls. Ribs 1.1/32 inches. Sound-holes stand 1.49/64 inches distant at upper part. Chose very dark and dull brown varnish, 1738-1750, favoured a more transparent brown on golden ground 1750-1760, and finally introduced a very arresting cherry-red, and these latter instruments command higher prices than those of earlier period. Wood sometimes of fine flame, and often one-piece backs. Accredited best maker in Vienna for 40 years.
Johann Georg Thir, Lauten
und Geigeninacher in Wienn
Anno 1758
(German lettering)
Joannes Giorgius Thir, fecit
Viennae, Anno 1765
Geissenhof succeeded him, 1781, completed the unfinished instruments, and retained the label. This relates to those dated 1781-1791. Good specimens £90, 1960.

Brother of Johann Georg. Worked at Vienna, 1770-1800. Produced instruments for four florins each. Circulated many hundreds throughout Europe. Employed twelve assistants. Medium arched modelling possessing considerable repose. Clean workmanship, especially the graceful scroll. One-piece back and front. Warm golden brown or reddish oil varnish showing temperament of the producer towards art. Sometimes a darker brown of less transparency. Tonal quality quite sweet and clear, though not large. £20, 1925. Made beautiful viol d’amours wide grained belly wood and finely carved man’s head.
Mathias Thir
in Wien Anno 1772
Mathias Thier fecit
Viennae, Anno 1782
Second label sometimes gives the name Thir. £45, 1960.

Born 1872. Pupil of Hermann. Worked at Hohendorf near Brambach (Saxony), 1890-1925. Bows modelled on the standard prototypes - pernambuco sticks. We find no difficulty in suscribing admiration to the ability and ingenuity in which every point is brought forward. Assisted by son Albert (born 1897); and by second son Arthur (born 1905) - splendid bows, stamped “Arthur Thoma”.

Worked at Mans (France). Pupil of Lupot. Elegant Strad modelling, refined workmanship. Yellow spirit varnish.
Médaille d’argent
Thomassin, Elève de Lupot
fait au Mans 1851

Born 1788. Died 1853. Pupil of Clément, and worked with him in the rue des Bons Enfants, Paris, from 1817. Deeply interested in Cremona lore, and tried to slightly emancipate himself with some of the traditions of the French school. Conceptions treated with a nicely trained hand. Varnish applied in a masterly manner. £25, 1930.

Born at Mirecourt 1870. Studied bow making with Bazin. Several years as the head of the bow department at the Gand and Bernardel establishment, Paris. Opened own premises in the rue de Paradis, 1901. Died 1942. Bows which admirably realise that elasticity constitutes an inseparable part of strength. Beautifully designed heads. Chocolate coloured sticks thinly graduated, but so ingeniously as not to be incompatible with a certain amount of resisting power. Stamped “C. Thomassin à Paris”. £25, 1960.

Born at Mirecourt 1855. Initiated into bow making by Bazin. Worked for Voirin at Paris 1872, and succeeded to his business 1885. Died 1904. Bows not escaping from the style of his famous predecessor’s productions, consequently we are no longer to wonder at their almost unsurpassable fineness. Stamped “L. Thamassin”. £20, 1960.

Sons and successors of Robert. Worked at the Sign of the Bass Violin in St. Paul’s Churchyard, London, 1770-1790. Modelling mostly after the Stainer style, but not particularly complimentary to its uniqueness. Arching often quite ugly in its protuberance, being nearly flat from the centre and making a sudden swoop towards the edge, forming a pronounced groove round the margins both back and front. Whole contour of unashamed mediocrity, but the scroll has agreeable contrast of fair dignity. Sound-holes near edge, central stem almost perpendicular - upper curve might almost be termed a misnomer regarding its original intention. Inordinately inaccurate tracing of purfling, and placed very close to edge. Graduation not especially good. Belly wood not always of poor quality, and backs of plain or slightly flamed material. Lifeless dark brown tinted varnish. Tonal quality invariably weak and worn out, or nauseating in nasal harshness. Also produced small Amatese models with medium arching. Outside workmanship having a near approach to ordinary neatness. Inside work rather less satisfactory but not faulty. Belly wood of fine fibre, and sometimes one-piece backs of really pretty material. Varnish either of a chestnut hue or a lighter brown, admittedly of nice transparency. Tonal quality pleasingly clear and fairly sweet. Violas generally having a body length of 15-3/4 inches. Sometimes not purfled.
Made and sold by
Chas. and Saml. Thompson
in St. Paul’s Churchyard
17 London 87
Branded “Thompson” or “Charles Thompson”, also “ Thompson’s, London” just below tail-piece button. £70, 1960.

Worked in London 1740-1769. Stainer modelling generally, with slight modifications in the arching. Though not to be termed clumsily made, these instruments are almost as far off being appellated chef d’oeuvres of elegance. Brownish red, or yellow varnish not to be too closely examined without dissatisfaction to the eye. Tonal quality of the nearly inanimate order easily killed by vigorous players. Also produced violins which assume an entirely separate standard from the above. These belong to his early period and have Amatese influences liberally infused. Attractively marked wood, and golden brown varnish. One specimen dated 1745, realised 200 dollars in the U.S.A., 1920. ’Cellos also have much to be appreciated, whereon is unfolded a graceful outline and exemplary workmanship.
Robert Thompson at the Bass-Violin
in Paul’s ally, St. Paul’s Churchyard
London 1749

Born at Mirecourt, 1851. Died 1929. Trained in the art by Colson. Nicnamed “Paganini”. Stradivarian modelling in the customary Mirecourtian manner. Workmanship, in this case, rather ennobled by being well finished though possibly not to be adjudged as of immaculate delicacy. Instruments having staunch supporters in the orchestral world. Frequently one-piece backs of handsomely marked material. Light yellow-brown or orange shades of varnish. ’Cellos, all essential points approved of by those intelligent amateurs who are susceptible to the considerable beauties of style belonging to types other than the Italian. Also produced guitars and hurdy-gurdies. Branded “Thouvenel Henry à Mirecourt” or “Touvenel Henry (T.H.”.

Born 1749. Died 1817. Worked at Straubing from 1769; and at Munich from 1808. Recognised as best maker of this family. Probably a pupil of Buchstädter whose style he rather exactly imitated. Modelling characteristically long and narrow. Medium arching, and with elongated waist-curves. Golden brown varnish, which has now lost its brilliance on many specimens. Tonal quality of average carrying power, well suited to the prudent bowing of amateurs, but unfavourable for the excitements of virtuosity. £20, 1925. Also produced a large number of guitars.
Johann Stephan Thumhard
Lautten und Geigenmacher
in Straubing, 1806
Stephan Thumhardt
Geigenmacher und Lautenmacher
in München, 1810
Made twelve violins for a wealthy collector. Received one ducat for the first, which seemed an absurdly small price, but he kept silent. Requested to supply a better specimen for the second, and was rewarded with two ducats. Recompensed by three ducats for the third, and so on up to twelve. Twelve progressive examples afterwards named “The Apostle Violins”.

Born at Altenbruch (Hannover), 1879. Made first instrument out of box-wood when a boy at school. Trained himself to build on orthodox modelling, and produced a properly constructed violin in 15th year, on which he proudly and lovingly played his little songs. Gained experience with repairing and minutely examining good instruments. Studied various works on construction, but found that none elucidated the art so adequately as actual patience, practise and fluctuating experiences in experimenting will do. Regarded all his productions previous to 1912 as purely embryonic. Adopted since then, three distinctive models, Stradivarian, Guarnerian and his own. Produced splendid replications of the Paganini Guarnerius, varnish matchlessly imitated, and tonal resonance superb. Those of original pattern equally meritorious. Upper and lower plates thicknessed according to special theories of his own, and attuned in perfect fifths. Everything accurately dimensioned and arranged so as to never fail in imparting a “proud” and aggressively full tone easily exercised by strong bowists. Avoidance of all unnatural means of preparing the wood. Sound post, bass bar and blocks chosen after the most critical test of attunement. Oil varnish of golden brown and red brown shades. Built over 200 violins and ’cellos up to the year 1925. Called them “orchestral”, “concert”, “solo” and “artist”. Recipient of State prize at Berlin, 1922.
Copie de
Giuseppe Guarnerius del Jesu. 1743
Jakob Tiedemann. Altenbruch 19-
Others as copies of Antonius Stradivarius.
Also three small brandmarks - two under corner blocks and one under large block. £90, 1960.

Born 1894. Newphew and pupil of G. Fiorini. Worked at San Remo. Also capable ’cellist. Violins, Violas and ’cellos. First-class workmanship in all details. Generally Strad models. Obtained high diplomas at Rome, Padua and Cremona. £45, 1960.
Arrigo Tivoli Fiorini
Allievo e Nipote di Giuseppe Fiorini
fece in San Remo anno 1947
(border of small squares; lyre design and signature)

Born in Ireland 1777. Invited in 15th year to Dublin by Thomas Perry, appreciated the novelty of having his intuitive talents so early recognised, assiduously gratified natural curiosity to examine minutely all kinds of instruments, and to elucidate to his mind the differentiations of style, structure, and tone. Went to London about 1798, worked for John Betts and others until 1841. Never in a position to establish his own premises, apparently always in more or less straitened circumstances owing to dissolute habits, negligence and follies suppressed ambitions of soliciting influential patronage - satisfied his conscience by disposing of his instruments to any dealers - brought down criticisms, not for any deficiency in workmanship, but in morality. Ended his days in Shoreditch workhouse. A genius, particularised for superb cutting of scrolls, the distinctive mark by which his work is always identified whether labelled with his name or others more famous. Enthusiastically preferred to copy the Grand-Strad model, and, whether spiritually or structurally, no blemish is discoverable. Not the tiniest touch of anything improper in arching, corners, edges, or curvatures. Design of sound-holes fully demonstrate his artistic conception and facile manipulation. Excellent belly wood, sometimes of wide grain, seldom one-piece backs. A vein of Cremona devotion runs through the superb varnishing, light brown and teddish brown both effectively tinged golden. Tonal quality savours of rich sonority, and well calculated to fit the necessities of soloists. Guarnerian models have the same spiritual replication, same warmth and brilliancy of tone, same finished workmanship, and a conspicuously grand scroll. Best specimens easily worth £50, 1930. Finest examples generally without a label, others of course, have been subjected to the insertion of Cremona facsimiles. Only a few bear own label. Name sometimes branded below button. £125, 1960.

Born 1675. Son of Felice. Worked at Bologna, 1695-1720, and at Venice, 1724. Died 1730. Modelling of fairly massive proportions. Finely graduated arching of very slight and gentle rise. Workmanship proves he was no circumscribed craftsman in a narrow field. Singular union of dignity and feminality pervades the scroll though of large dimensions. Sound-holes also boldly conceived, and seem cut with alacrity as well as certainty. Very flat margins and broad edges. Highest degree of accuracy displayed in the purfling. Yellow varnish which has justly received homage from connoisseurs. Splendidly sonorous and noble tone, placing, in penetrative intensity, many others (usually considered to be securely entrenched in this particular quality), into a comparative by-path. ’Cellos having similar characteristics and magnificently broad tone. Pocket fiddles gorgeously decorated with inlay.
Carolo Tonocus fecit Bononiae
in Platea Castaelionis, anno Domini
Carolus Tononi fecit Bononiae in via
Sancti Mamantis sub signo Sancte
Caecilie, Anno Domini 1716
(with two designs encircled by an octagonal border)
Fornito di me Carlo Tononi in Bologna
in S. Mamolo al Insegno di S. Cecilia.
Anno 1715
Name often branded near tail piece. Monasterio (renowned Spanish virtuoso) played on one dated 1698 which was frequently attributed to Stradivari. Ribs and scroll of pretty material. Light orange brown varnish, also a luscious rich reddish brown, not especially velvety. Tonal quality crisp and bright, very responsive and evenly balanced, splendidly sonorous though not of great power. Measurements of an example dated 1732: body length, 14.1/16 inches; upper bouts, 6-1/2; middle, 4-1/4; lower, 8-1/4. One specimen dated 1739, realised 4,000 dollars at New York, 1921.
Carolus Tononi Bonon. restaursuit
Venetijs 1721
Carlo Tononi Bolognese
fece in Venezia l’A; 1729
Carolus de Tononis
fecit Venetiis 17-
Carolus Tononi Bonon. fecit
Venetiis sub Titulo S. Ceciliae
anno 1739
Monogram often branded above tailpiece pin. Supposed to have studied or worked with Montagnana and Santo Serafino at Venice. £800, 1940.

Son of Felice. Worked at Bologna, 1687-1705, and later at Venice and Rome. Violins often of an enlarged Amati pattern, although there are occasional specimens of slightly smaller dimensions. Each instrument has an assemblage of elegancies. Varied arching - never very high but mostly just over medium, whilst others are a trifle under. Sound-holes accurately cut and very gracefully disposed. Quaintness and daintiness characterise the comparatively small scroll. Rich varnish of a golden brown shade, slightly tinted with red, on a yellow ground, of fine texture, brilliance and durability. Tonal quality delightfully silvery and warm, also of clear penetrative force without however, being completely full. Most connoissuers give these instruments premier place as being in every respect superior to either of the Carlos. Measurements of one dated 1699: body length, 13-7/8 inches; upper bouts, 6-3/8; middle, 4-1/2; lower, 8; depth of ribs, 1.1/16 to 1-1/8. Backs sometimes of rather ordinary material, but also others of broad flamed beauty and of one piece. Most minute examination will fail in finding a shadow of any sectional inaccuracy or imperfection, external or internal on his magnificent violas. Measurements of viola dated 1692: body length, 16-3/8 inches; upper bouts; 7-1/8; lower, 9-1/8. ’Cellos forcibly precise in Amatese outline and arching, contour of a sort of delicate masculinity. No appellation is too fullsome to describe these gorgeous instruments, and more particularly those having a yellow brown tinged with red varnish. £650, 1960.
Joannes de Tononis
fecit Venetiis 17-
Joannes de Tononis fecit Bononiae
in Via Mamuli Anno 1699
Joannes Tunonus fecit Bononiae
in Platea Pauaglionis
Anno Domini 1690

Born at Middlesbrough, 1868. Apprenticed in early life to a chemist. Abandoned that business in 1891. Subsequently earned his livelihood as an orchestral violinist and teacher. Resident at Fulham (London), 1920, where he found much patronage as a repairer and dealer. Produced 12 violins and 1 viola at Bolsover (Derbyshire) prior to the year 1897. Remainder all made in London. Semi-original model, outline suggestive of the Guarnerius, arching, width of bouts and depth of ribs more Stradivarian. Workmanship generally of that exactitude which cannot be contradicted. Completely successful scroll apparently carved with comparative ease, fairly massive and proudly belonging to the general tendency of the design. Sound-holes of nice freedom and symmetry, confidently cut, with wings (particularly the upper) cut off rather horizontally. Purfling also without any irregularity. Well chosen wood of pretty figure and good resonance. Experimented with varnish since 16th year; had many hindrances and failures to try his patience, but after continued re-starts, eventually satisfied himself with an oil preparation containing a certain amount of amber mixed with other gums. A rather nice looking and elastic varnish, not ingratiatingly infused with too much colouring matter, and of a reddish orange shade. Commendable tonal quality, agreeably resonant and brilliantly even. Violas and ’cellos equally praiseworthy.
No. 13 Made by 1920
Timothy Toomey
London England
Inventor of “Toomey” resin.

Born 1902. Daughter of János. Studied the violin at Budapest Conseivatorium. Became interested in violin construction, and worked with father. Married Hugo d’Amelio 1936; and opened premises as a professional maker at Rome. Won gold medals at Venice and Budapest. Produced 51 violins up to year 1950. Fine achievements in Strad and Guarnerian modelling. Golden-yellow oil varnish.
Theresia Tóth
Johannis Toth filiague discipula fecit ad
propriam formam
Anno 19 . . Op. .

Born at Paris 1842. Died 1903. Built 20 violins, also quartets, as well as guitars. Branded “J. Tournier, à Paris”.

Worked at Perpignan (Pyrenees). Inventor of the “Tenor” - the principal instrument of the Cobla orchestras in Spain.

Bow maker. Settled at Paris 1740. Worked until 1780. Bows that show a marked improvement on those of any predecessor. Used lighter wood and proportioned the stick more accurately, and gave it the backward bend indispensable to its elasticity. The first to discontinue the use of one or more notches on the stick to which the “frog” was moved to tighten or loosen the hair. Replaced this imperfect device by the use of a screw through a threaded pin inserted on the lower side of the frog, which was placed in a groove cut in the stick, gradually moved the frog, and thus increased or diminished the tension of the hair. Nut and head of screw generally of ivory. Rather quaint-looking bows, elegantly fluted for half or whole length with small but strong heads. Deep red or chocolate coloured sticks, round, and octagonal. Genuine examples very seldom stamped. £60 to £90, 1960.

Born at Paris 1747. Younger brother of Xaver. Destined by his father to be a clock maker. Had no general education, quite illiterate, knew not how to read or write. Worked from an early age for various watch and clock makers, scarcely made enough money for subsistence, and after eight years abandoned that trade in favour of bow making. Made his first bows from staves of old sugar casks from Brazil, as he could not afford to purchase expensive woods. These early attempts laid the groundwork of his genius, and encouraged him to pursue his course straight to the goal of his ambition. Enthusiasm turned his mind into perceiving the imperfections of existing bows and planning their improvement, amending the vagueness and uncertainty of balance, and supplying lightness with strength. Fascination to do superior work to that of contemporaries insensibly grew on him, and he had that patient stamina which enabled him to proceed slowly but very surely and he planted marvellous stocks for posterity to graft on. He seems to have had a very ingenious way of cutting (instead of resorting to heat) the necessary curve direct from the wood, yet preserving the same grain throughout, thus preventing any warping. Heads beautifully squarish. Many sticks are of dark Pernambuco, but a lighter coloured wood known as grey Pernambuco - which is rich looking - was occasionally used; and several of a chocolate colour are known. Also at one time in his career he made a few bows with grandly attractive heads like those of ’cello bows for which he used a reddish Carpathian wood. Round and octagonal sticks. Enlightened on many points by the great Viotti (who lived at Paris from 1782 for several years). Achieved all the rightful elasticity, balance and strength for a solo player’s vehicle, and standardised the length (including the head) to be 29-1/2 inches. Rich collectors have given £200 for gold-mounted specimens. Tried Various woods for his next essays, and was content to get a couple of shillings for any of them. Ultimately found that Brazilian wood (preferably Pernambuco) were the only ones to give elasticity and strength combined. Searched the warehouses that stored such material, and spent hours trying to find straight pieces without defects of knots and twists. For the bows made at this period he was able to demand thirty shillings, and this prosperity enabled him to take a fourth-floor atelier on the Quai de l’école. There he worked quietly for his art uninterruptedly until his 85th year when failing eyesight necessitated complete cessation. Died 1835.
Business card in 1774 -
Tourte le Jeune
fait et vend toutes sortes d’archets
Demeure quai de l’école, maison
de marchand de musique, ci
devant Gaffé du Parnasse No. 10
au 4me A Paris
Seldom branded his name, but two bows are known to have a very diminutive engraved label glued into the slot with the inscription in French “This bow was made by Tourte in 1824, age 77 years”. Hundreds of bows bearing his name have emanated from Mirecourt, also many makers have closely imitated his style and branded his name on the sticks, so that a genuine Tourte is not easy to distinguish. £250, 1960.

Known as l’Ainé. Worked with his father from 1770, and later succeeded to his business. Produced many truly excellent bows, generally octagon sticks of a deep reddish colour, sometimes round sticks of a light chocolate shade. Stamped “Tourte aine”. £90, 1960.

Worked at Naples 1800-1838. Individualistic style in large modelling. Many curious characteristics plainly evident. Flattish arching but looks slightly too full-bodied.. Very prominent edges. Purfling wide, and heavily inlaid, though not coatsely. Pointed sound-holes with top and bottom portions not cut through, entirely ungraceful. Rather clumsy scroll, with an abortive attempt to imitate the Brescian style of cnrvature towards the boss. Reddish-brown varnish thickly applied. Whole workmanship not qualified to arouse admiration, inside work suggests he did not always recognise the existence of established scientific principles, but the Gagliano-like tone is splendid. £60, 1940. ’Cellos less capricious and more highly valued than the violins. £85, 1960.
Raffaele Trapani
Napoli No. . .

Born at Neukirchen 1855. Pupil of Pfretzschner. Established at Wildstein 1893. Won medals at Paris, Vienna, and Prague.

Worked at Rome 1875-1910. Little known work.

Born at Turin, 1894. Pupil of Radrizzani (Milan). Worked at Vevey. Established at Nice, 1929. Guarnerian modelling, and one quite individualistic, praiseworthy workmanship especially the scroll, reddish-orange varnish radiantly showing up the beautiful wood. Assisted by son Serge (born 1927). £150, 1960.
Liuteria Italiana
Silvio Tua
di Tarino.
Fecit 19 . . à Nice
No. . .

Bow-maker. Son of James Tubbs. Died 1911. Bows of the rarest excellence. Their durability, elasticity, and beauty give every satisfaction to the most exacting soloist. £25, 1960.

Born in London, 1835. Son of William. Worked for father until 1860. Owned a small shop in Church Street, Soho, 1861. Moved to High Street, Marylebone, 1864. Employed by William Ebsworth Hill during these years, and specimens of his talent, bearing Hill’s name, are easily recognisable, and artists never have hesitated or showed the slightest reluctance to embark on the expenditure of several guineas for one. Greatly patronised by the renowned quartettists at the Monday Popular Concerts, London, from 1865. Extended his reputation by splendid productivity. Engaged finer premises in King Street, Soho. Settled in Wardour Street, 1872. Lived some years also at Staines. Returned to Wardour Street, 1911. Died 1921. Received the special appointment of bow maker to the Duke of Edinburgh. It is impossible for any person who appreciates a fine bow, not to hail with unalloyed delight any of the productions of James Tubbs - valuable accessions to the realms of famous French examples. Intimately acquainted with the minutiae of perfect balance, familiar with the diversified style of celebrated predecessors, trained by long study of all the laws, wisely assimilated suggestions from various violinists, brought a refined and matured tact in seizing all the bearings couched under strength and elasticity, imbued with a sincere love of artistry and a profound reverence for its dictates, and withal, endowed with a natural gift of manipulative skill. Possessed every qualification peculiarly fitting him to produce everything replete with perfection. This champion, completely disciplined, stepped forward to challenge the opinion that French bows were the only bows worthy of artists’ acceptance, and, he won the day on this field he had entered. To say that he was the equal of Tourte, Peccatte, and Voirin, is not a wild and extravagant hypothesis. Artists have rendered it a matter of imperious necessity to possess one or more of Tubb’s bows, and take pride in triumphantly proclaiming the fact. Take any specimen, subject it to minute examination, test it in strength and lightness, and you will soon be aware of owning a real treasure, something to stimulate fine playing. Turned out about ten bows a month. Best period 1875-1895. Contour of heads rather varied but always very beautiful. Magnificent sweep of stick, generally round and of dark pernambuco, but very occasionally of lighter colour. Wilhelmj owned a gold mounted presentation bow bearing the inscription “To Wilhelmj, from the Orchestra of the Wagner Festival, London, 1877”. The fame of Tubbs has led to the great multiplication of copies stamped with his name by the trade, particularly the German exporters. £30 to £45, 1960.

Born in London, 1814. Father of James. Achieved first-class results whilst at Thomas Dodd’s. Set up for himself in Vauxhall Walk, and later in Coventry Street. Died 1878. Efficiently consummated his zeal for artistic productivity, and rose above several of contemporary continental rivals. Many of his excellent bows made for dealers and stamped accordingly. £20, 1960.

Father of William. Worked in London. Skilful imitator of the John Dodd bows. Completely splendid, an opinion generally entertained and justly grounded. £20, 1960.

Worked in London, 1650. Made very attractive viols, beautiful in workmanship, wood and varnish. All writers have failed to chronicle existence of violins by this Turner, but we have seen two examples purporting to come from his hands, guaranteed by a reputable firm of connoisseurs. On the other hand the labels may have been taken out of his viols and placed within nondescript violins. Both specimens were, however, of superb design and smooth workmanship, no matter who made them. Small Amati modelling, lustrous golden-brown varnish, and an appealing tone.
William Turner at ye
hand and crown in
gravelle lane neere
Aldgate, London, 1650

Vicar of Weston (Wharfedale, Yorkshire), 1900-1940. Claimed to have rediscovered the tone secrets and varnish of Stradivari. Guaranteed to produce instruments identical with, and equal to those of the Cremonese. Received the most flattering testimonials from amateurs and professionals. Ardent spiritualist. Author of a voluminous book entitled “News from the next world”, published by the Spiritualist Press, London, 1940, in which he relates the several manifestations he received from Stradivari, who unfolded to him the “secrets” of violin construction and varnish. Most, entertaining from beginning to end, whether one be a spiritualist or not. Produced a huge variety - Stradivarian, Guarnerian, and Maggini modelling. Conscientious experience brought to bear on all of them, some being better than others, but none can be truthfully judged by any unfavourable epithet. Also built many of original conception, large and bold modelling, indicating masculinity rather than gracefulness. Unique scrolls fortunately not characterised by erratic or fanatic originality. Sound-holes too have received much sensible thought. Fine oil varnish, soft, very transparent, and generally applied with subtlety though not always finished off very smoothly. Always handsome wood. Workmanship well carried out. Semi-luscious sweet tone rather than powerful, plays very easily equal and clear. Large imposing label with photograph of maker in centre, and designs in the four corners, also branded “Tweedale”. Some instruments endowed with fancy names such as Atlanta. 1910; Gelasius, 1912; Bianca, 1914.

Born 1878. Resident at Louth (Lincolnshire). Stradivarian outline, Guarnerian sound-holes, edges slightly turned up, golden-brown or chestnut-brown oil varnish.